|Named after||Edward Witten|
|Name in Saurian|| Nakkodaim (Nk)|
|Systematic name|| Unpentbium (Upb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Wittenium||Californium|
|Element left of Wittenium||Hertzium|
|Element right of Wittenium||Diracium|
|426.5376 u, 708.2823 yg|
|Atomic radius||127 pm, 1.27 Å|
|Covalent radius||137 pm, 1.37 Å|
|van der Waals radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|s||423 (152 p+, 271 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f9 7d3 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 27, 11, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +3, +4|
(a weakly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||1135.3 kJ/mol, 11.766 eV|
|Electron affinity||27.4 kJ/mol, 0.284 eV|
|Molar mass||426.538 g/mol|
|Molar volume||49.801 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.41 × 1021 g−1|
1.21 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||436 pm, 4.36 Å|
|Melting point|| 1410.30 K, 2538.54°R|
|Boiling point|| 3412.12 K, 6141.82°R|
|Liquid range||2001.82 , 3603.28|
|Triple point|| 1410.28 K, 2538.50°R|
@ 3.2065 mPa, 2.4051 × 10−5 torr
|Critical point|| 7688.60 K, 13839.47°R|
@ 275.9494 MPa, 2723.417 atm
|Heat of fusion||14.473 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||332.279 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05701 J/(g• ), 0.10261 J/(g• )|
24.315 J/(mol• ), 43.768 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.19 × 10−32|
Absolute: 7.36 × 1020 kg
|By atom||1.35 × 10−33|
Wittenium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Wt and atomic number 152. Wittenium was named in honor of Edward Witten (1951–), a pioneer in string theory and quantum field theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unpentbium (Upb), eka-californium, or simply element 152. Wittenium is the tenth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below dysprosium and californium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f10.
Atomic properties Edit
Wittenium atom contains 423 nucleons (152 protons, 271 neutrons) that make up the nucleus surrounded by 8 shells of 152 electrons. The atom masses 426.54 daltons with 99.98% of its mass is in the nucleus. The atom sizes 127 pm, with only about 1⁄14000 of its radius is nucleus.
This element is assumed to have 12 electrons in the 6f orbital, but spin-orbital coupling causes 6f orbital to lose three electrons to the 7d orbital.
Like every other trans-lead elements, wittenium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 423Wt with a brief half-life (t½) of 74.7 milliseconds. Like all other elements in this region of the periodic table, wittenium undergoes spontaneous fission like the examples.
The most stable isotope has five metastable isomers: 423m1Wt (t½ = 3.0 min), 423m2Wt (t½ = 76 ms), 423m3Wt (t½ = 980 ns), 423m4Wt (t½ = 10 ps), and 423m5Wt (t½ = 8.7 minutes). Two of the most unstable isomers undergo isomeric transition to corresponding ground state isotope while the rest undergo fission.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Wittenium is a noble metal meaning it is very unreactive due to its small atomic size. The four available oxidation states of wittenium are 1, +2, +3, and +4 with +4 being most common. In aqueous solutions, Wt3+ is yellow while Wt4+ is light green. It does not react with oxygen, not even in the flame, and it is very stable even in strong acids. If the metal is exposed to the atmosphere of free fluorine gas, which is the most reactive nonmetal, it would take years to form a fluoride, WtF4.
WtF4 is a yellow crystalline solid, a product of reaction between wittenium and fluorine gas or hydrofluoric acid. Its chloride homologue, WtCl4 (also a yellow crystalline solid), is most commonly formed when dissolved metal is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid. WtO2 is brittle grayish black oxide, obtained when wittenium is treated with very strong oxidizing agents, such as ozone at 600°C (1600°R).
Physical properties Edit
Wittenium is a soft, brittle, tan metal. Its density is 84⁄7 g/cm3, very similar to the density of niobium. The metal is ferromagnetic below −235°C (68°R), is antiferromagnetic between −235°C (68°R) and −153°C (215°R), and is paramagnetic above −153°C (215°R).
The metal melts to a glowing golden brown liquid at 1137°C (2539°R) and boils to an orange-colored vapor at 3139°C (5142°R). The liquid ratio of wittenium is 2.42, obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point in Rankine. The critical point, minimum temperature and pressure where supercritical fluid allowed to exist, is 4415°C (8439°R), 2.76 GPa. The triple point, minimum temperature and pressure where liquid state allowed to exist, is the same as its melting point but at a pressure of 3.21 mPa.
It is almost certain that wittenium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of wittenium in the universe by mass is 2.19 × 10−32, which amounts to 7.36 × 1020 kilograms, or 7⁄9 the Ceres mass worth of this element.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of wittenium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 423Wt.
| group6 = Extras | list6 = Colors of Elements }}