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Symbol Wt
Atomic number 152
Pronunciation /'wi•ten•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Edward Witten
Name in Saurian Nakkodaim (Nk)
Systematic name Unpentbium (Upb)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Dysprosium family
Series Dumaside series
Coordinate 6f10
Element above Wittenium Californium
Element left of Wittenium Hertzium
Element right of Wittenium Diracium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 575
Atomic mass 426.5376 u, 708.2823 yg
Atomic radius 127 pm, 1.27 Å
Covalent radius 137 pm, 1.37 Å
van der Waals radius 193 pm, 1.93 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 423 (152 p+, 271 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.78
Nuclear radius 8.97 fm
Half-life 74.777 ms
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 152-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f9 7d3 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 27, 11, 4
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4
(a weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.70
First ionization energy 1135.3 kJ/mol, 11.766 eV
Electron affinity 27.4 kJ/mol, 0.284 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 426.538 g/mol
Molar volume 49.801 cm3/mol
Density 8.565 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.41 × 1021 g−1
1.21 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 436 pm, 4.36 Å
Speed of sound 2215 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Tetragonal
Color Tan
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 1410.30 K, 2538.54°R
1137.15°C, 2078.87°F
Boiling point 3412.12 K, 6141.82°R
3138.97°C, 5682.15°F
Liquid range 2001.82 K, 3603.28°R
Liquid ratio 2.42
Triple point 1410.28 K, 2538.50°R
1137.13°C, 2078.83°F
@ 3.2065 mPa, 2.4051 × 10−5 torr
Critical point 7688.60 K, 13839.47°R
7415.45°C, 13379.80°F
@ 275.9494 MPa, 2723.417 atm
Heat of fusion 14.473 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 332.279 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05701 J/(g•K), 0.10261 J/(g•°R)
24.315 J/(mol•K), 43.768 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 2.19 × 10−32
Absolute: 7.36 × 1020 kg
By atom 1.35 × 10−33

Wittenium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Wt and atomic number 152. Wittenium was named in honor of Edward Witten (1951–), a pioneer in string theory and quantum field theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unpentbium (Upb), eka-californium, or simply element 152. Wittenium is the tenth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below dysprosium and californium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f10.

Atomic properties Edit

Wittenium atom contains 423 nucleons (152 protons, 271 neutrons) that make up the nucleus surrounded by 8 shells of 152 electrons. The atom masses 426.54 daltons with 99.98% of its mass is in the nucleus. The atom sizes 127 pm, with only about 114000 of its radius is nucleus.

This element is assumed to have 12 electrons in the 6f orbital, but spin-orbital coupling causes 6f orbital to lose three electrons to the 7d orbital.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other trans-lead elements, wittenium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 423Wt with a brief half-life (t½) of 74.7 milliseconds. Like all other elements in this region of the periodic table, wittenium undergoes spontaneous fission like the examples.

Wt → 247
Cm + 137
Ba + 39 1
Wt → 226
Ra + 152
Sm + 4
He + 41 1

The most stable isotope has five metastable isomers: 423m1Wt (t½ = 3.0 min), 423m2Wt (t½ = 76 ms), 423m3Wt (t½ = 980 ns), 423m4Wt (t½ = 10 ps), and 423m5Wt (t½ = 8.7 minutes). Two of the most unstable isomers undergo isomeric transition to corresponding ground state isotope while the rest undergo fission.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Wittenium is a noble metal meaning it is very unreactive due to its small atomic size. The four available oxidation states of wittenium are 1, +2, +3, and +4 with +4 being most common. In aqueous solutions, Wt3+ is yellow while Wt4+ is light green. It does not react with oxygen, not even in the flame, and it is very stable even in strong acids. If the metal is exposed to the atmosphere of free fluorine gas, which is the most reactive nonmetal, it would take years to form a fluoride, WtF4.

WtF4 is a yellow crystalline solid, a product of reaction between wittenium and fluorine gas or hydrofluoric acid. Its chloride homologue, WtCl4 (also a yellow crystalline solid), is most commonly formed when dissolved metal is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid. WtO2 is brittle grayish black oxide, obtained when wittenium is treated with very strong oxidizing agents, such as ozone at 600°C (1600°R).

Physical properties Edit

Wittenium is a soft, brittle, tan metal. Its density is 847 g/cm3, very similar to the density of niobium. The metal is ferromagnetic below −235°C (68°R), is antiferromagnetic between −235°C (68°R) and −153°C (215°R), and is paramagnetic above −153°C (215°R).

The metal melts to a glowing golden brown liquid at 1137°C (2539°R) and boils to an orange-colored vapor at 3139°C (5142°R). The liquid ratio of wittenium is 2.42, obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point in Rankine. The critical point, minimum temperature and pressure where supercritical fluid allowed to exist, is 4415°C (8439°R), 2.76 GPa. The triple point, minimum temperature and pressure where liquid state allowed to exist, is the same as its melting point but at a pressure of 3.21 mPa.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that wittenium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of wittenium in the universe by mass is 2.19 × 10−32, which amounts to 7.36 × 1020 kilograms, or 79 the Ceres mass worth of this element.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of wittenium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 423Wt.

Pa + 145
Pm + 47 1
n → 423
Nh + 89
Y + 23 1
n → 423
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Tn Og
8 Nw G * Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch A Ed Ab Bu

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