|Name in Saurian|| Nakkodaim (Nk)|
|Systematic name|| Unpentbium (Upb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Fermium (100Fm)|
|Previous element||Hertzium (151Hr)|
|Next element||Diracium (153Dr)|
|Atomic mass||426.5376 u, 708.2823 yg|
|Atomic radius||127 pm, 1.27 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|Nucleons||423 (152 p+, 271 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||8.97 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g18 6f9 7d3 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 27, 11, 4
|Oxidation states|| 0, +1, +2|
(weakly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||1135.3 kJ/mol, 11.766 eV|
|Electron affinity||27.4 kJ/mol, 0.284 eV|
|Covalent radius||137 pm, 1.37 Å|
|Molar mass||426.538 g/mol|
|Molar volume||49.801 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||1.21 × 1022 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||436 pm, 4.36 Å|
|Speed of sound||2215 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Simple tetragonal|
|Melting point|| 1410.30 K, 1137.15°C|
|Boiling point|| 3412.12 K, 3138.97°C|
|Liquid range||2001.82 K/°C, 3603.28°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 1410.28 K, 1137.13°C|
@ 3.2065 mPa, 2.4051 × 10−5 torr
|Critical point|| 7688.60 K, 7415.45°C|
@ 275.9494 MPa, 2723.417 atm
|Heat of fusion||14.473 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||332.279 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05701 J/g/K, 0.10261 J/g/°R|
24.315 J/mol/K, 43.768 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 2.19 × 10−39|
Absolute: 7.36 × 1013 kg
Wittenium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Wt and atomic number 152. Wittenium was named in honor of Edward Witten (1951–), a pioneer in string theory and quantum field theory. This element is known in scientific literature as unpentbium (Upb), eka-fermium, or simply element 152. Wittenium is the twelfth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below erbium and fermium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 6f12.
Wittenium is a soft, brittle, tan metal. Its density is 84⁄7 g/cm3, very similar to the density of niobium. The metal is ferromagnetic below −235°C (68°R), is antiferromagnetic between −235°C (68°R) and −153°C (215 K), and is paramagnetic above −153°C (215 K).
The metal melts to a glowing golden brown liquid at 1137°C (2539°R) and boils to an orange-colored vapor at 3139°C (5142°R). The liquid ratio of wittenium is 2.42, obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point in Rankine. The critical point, minimum temperature and pressure where supercritical fluid allowed to exist, is 4415°C (8439°R), 2.76 GPa. The triple point, minimum temperature and pressure where liquid state allowed to exist, is same as its melting point at a pressure of 3.21 mPa.
Wittenium atom contains 423 nucleons (152 protons, 271 neutrons) that make up the nucleus surrounded by 8 shells of 152 electrons. The atom masses 426.54 daltons with 99.98% of its mass is in the nucleus. The atom sizes 127 pm, with only about 1⁄14000 of its radius is nucleus.
This element is assumed to have 12 electrons in the 6f orbital, but spin-orbital coupling causes 6f orbital to lose three electrons to the 7d orbital.
Like every other trans-lead elements, wittenium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 423Wt with a brief half-life (t½) of 74.7 milliseconds. Like all other elements in this region of the periodic table, wittenium undergoes spontaneous fission according to the following examples.
The most stable isotope has five metastable isomers: 423m1Wt (t½ = 3.0 min), 423m2Wt (t½ = 76 ms), 423m3Wt (t½ = 980 ns), 423m4Wt (t½ = 10 ps), and 423m5Wt (t½ = 8.7 minutes). Two of the most unstable isomers shown undergo isomeric transition to corresponding ground state isotope while the rest undergo fission.
Wittenium is a noble metal meaning it is very unreactive due to its small atomic size. The two common oxidation states are 0 and +2 with +1 being less common. In aqueous solutions, Wt+ is yellow while Wt2+ is light green. It does not react with oxygen, not even in the flame, and it is very stable even in strong acids. If the metal is exposed to the atmosphere of free fluorine gas, which is the most reactive nonmetal, it would take years to form a fluoride, WtF2.
WtF2 is a yellow crystalline solid, a product of reaction between wittenium and fluorine gas or hydrofluoric acid. Its fluoride homologue, WtCl2 (also yellow crystalline solid), is most commonly formed when dissolved metal is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid. WtO is brittle grayish black oxide, obtained when wittenium is treated with very strong oxidizing agents, such as ozone at 600°C (1600°R).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that wittenium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then wittenium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of wittenium in the universe by mass is 2.19 × 10−39, which amounts to 7.36 × 1013 kilograms.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize wittenium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of wittenium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 447Wt.