|Name in Saurian|| Ludkxevvaim (Lx)|
|Systematic name|| Unpentpentium (Upp)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Lawrencium (103Lr)|
|Previous element||Lewisium (154Le)|
|Next element||Hawkinium (156Hk)|
|Atomic mass||443.6824 u, 736.7519 yg|
|Atomic radius||124 pm, 1.24 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||183 pm, 1.83 Å|
|Nucleons||440 (155 p+, 285 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||9.09 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g18 6f13 7d2 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 31, 10, 4
|Oxidation states|| 0, +1, +2, +3|
(mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||954.0 kJ/mol, 9.887 eV|
|Electron affinity||29.2 kJ/mol, 0.303 eV|
|Covalent radius||132 pm, 1.32 Å|
|Molar mass||443.682 g/mol|
|Molar volume||26.119 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||2.31 × 1022 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||351 pm, 3.51 Å|
|Speed of sound||2795 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Simple trigonal|
|Melting point|| 1548.37 K, 1275.22°C|
|Boiling point|| 3694.19 K, 3421.04°C|
|Liquid range||2145.82 K/°C, 3862.47°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 1548.36 K, 1275.21°C|
@ 7.3523 mPa, 5.5147 × 10−5 torr
|Critical point|| 8988.59 K, 8715.44°C|
@ 1.4675 MPa, 14.483 atm
|Heat of fusion||17.039 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||115.293 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05056 J/g/K, 0.09100 J/g/°R|
22.431 J/mol/K, 40.376 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 5.00 × 10−42|
Absolute: 1.68 × 1011 kg
Vanthoffium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Vh and atomic number 155. Vanthoffium was named in honor of Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (1852–1911), who made discoveries in chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure, and stereochemistry. This element is known in scientific literature as unpentpentium (Upp), eka-lawrencium, or simply element 155. Vanthoffium is the first element of the namesake vanthoffide series, which is the fifth d-block series of the periodic table, and is the heaviest member of the scandium family (below scandium, yttrium, lutetium, and lawrencium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 7d1.
Vanthoffium is a beautiful, incorrossive lime green metal that is ductile and malleable. The reason why vanthoffium is bright green instead of gray-white for most metals is because the valence electrons are oscillating at green wavelengths because of its quantum effects. Its density is 17 g/cm3 and sound travels through this metal at about 2800 m/s. It forms trigonal crystals and the average atomic separation is 3.51 Å. In one cubic centimeter of vanthoffium, there are 23 sextillion (2.3 × 1022) atoms.
Vanthoffium's melting and boiling points are 1275°C and 3421°C, respectively, corresponding to its liquid ratio of 2.39 (obtained by converting to Kelvin or Rankine scale first), similar to gold. The amount of energy needed to melt one mole of this element is 17 kJ and the amount of energy needed to boil it is 115.3 kJ.
Vanthoffium's nucleus comprises of 440 particles (155 protons, 285 neutrons), which together make up almost all of atom's mass packed into such a tiny portion of the atom in volume. The electron configuration and electrons per shell is not what the periodic table would tell because of the spin-orbit coupling due to relativistic effects. Despite it is the first element of the d-block series in period 8, the f-orbital needs one more electron to complete its orbital. The missing f-orbital electron made the d-orbital excess of electrons by one.
Like every other elements heavier than lead, vanthoffium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 440Vh with a half-life of only 372 microseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following examples.
One vanthoffium meta state has longer half-life than 440Vh, 443m2Vh, whose half-life is 2.7 milliseconds. The second longest half-life is 370 microseconds, for 442mVh, only 2 microseconds shy of the half-life of 440Vh.
Vanthoffium is very unreactive due to its unexpectedly small atomic size caused by high charge density between so many protons and electrons. The most stable oxidation state is +1 (monovalent), and can donate no more than three electrons. Hence this, Vh+ ions is most stable in aqueous solutions, coloring light orange in water but dark red in acetylene. Vanthoffium has the highest ionization energy of any scandium family elements at 9.9 eV. The second highest ionization energy is scandium, 6.6 eV. In response, vanthoffium has the highest electronegativity with the second highest is again scandium.
There are examples of vanthoffium compounds despite its noble feature of the element. Vanthoffium(III) nitride (VhN) is a peach crystalline solid. Vanthoffium(I) oxide (Vh2O) is a red powder. Vanthoffium nitrate (VhNO3) is colored green as a powder or in solution. Vanthoffium(I) chloride (VhCl) is a blue ionic solid obtained by reacting either with hydrochloric acid or chlorine gas. Vanthoffium(I) cyanide (VhCN) is a volatile white powder and vanthoffium sulfate (Vh2SO4) is a pale yellow powder. Vanthoffium can also form compounds in the +0 state, such as Vh(SN)2 and Vh(CO)5.
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that vanthoffium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then vanthoffium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. Vanthoffium has an estimated abundance of 5 × 10−42 by mass, which amounts to 1.68 × 1011 kilograms or about three billion people worth of this element in mass.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize vanthoffium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of vanthoffium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 462Vh.