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Vanthoffium

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Vanthoffium (155Vh)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'vant•huf•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Ludkxevvaim (Lx)
/'lud•ksev•ām/
Systematic name Unpentpentium (Upp)
/'ün•pent•pen•tē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 7d1
Above element Lawrencium (103Lr)
Below element ––
Previous element Lewisium (154Le)
Next element Hawkinium (156Hk)
Family Scandium family
Series Vanthoffide series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 443.6824 u, 736.7519 yg
Atomic radius 124 pm, 1.24 Å
Van der Waals radius 183 pm, 1.83 Å
Subatomic particles 595
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 440 (155 p+, 285 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.84
Nuclear radius 9.09 fm
Half-life 371.63 μs
Electronic properties
Electron notation 155-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f13 7d2 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 31, 10, 4
Oxidation states 0, +1, +2, +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.38
First ionization energy 954.0 kJ/mol, 9.887 eV
Electron affinity 29.2 kJ/mol, 0.303 eV
Covalent radius 132 pm, 1.32 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 443.682 g/mol
Molar volume 26.119 cm3/mol
Density 16.987 g/cm3
Atomic number density 2.31 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 351 pm, 3.51 Å
Speed of sound 2795 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Simple trigonal
Color Lime green
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 1548.37 K, 1275.22°C
2327.40°F, 2787.07°R
Boiling point 3694.19 K, 3421.04°C
6189.87°F, 6649.54°R
Liquid range 2145.82 K/°C, 3862.47°F/°R
Liquid ratio 2.39
Triple point 1548.36 K, 1275.21°C
2327.38°F, 2787.05°R
@ 7.3523 mPa, 5.5147 × 10−5 torr
Critical point 8988.59 K, 8715.44°C
15719.79°F, 16179.46°R
@ 1.4675 MPa, 14.483 atm
Heat of fusion 17.039 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 115.293 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05056 J/g/K, 0.09100 J/g/°R
22.431 J/mol/K, 40.376 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 5.00 × 10−42
Absolute: 1.68 × 1011 kg

Vanthoffium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Vh and atomic number 155. Vanthoffium was named in honor of Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (1852–1911), who made discoveries in chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure, and stereochemistry. This element is known in scientific literature as unpentpentium (Upp), eka-lawrencium, or simply element 155. Vanthoffium is the first element of the namesake vanthoffide series, which is the fifth d-block series of the periodic table, and is the heaviest member of the scandium family (below scandium, yttrium, lutetium, and lawrencium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 7d1.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Vanthoffium is a beautiful, incorrossive lime green metal that is ductile and malleable. The reason why vanthoffium is bright green instead of gray-white for most metals is because the valence electrons are oscillating at green wavelengths because of its quantum effects. Its density is 17 g/cm3 and sound travels through this metal at about 2800 m/s. It forms trigonal crystals and the average atomic separation is 3.51 Å. In one cubic centimeter of vanthoffium, there are 23 sextillion (2.3 × 1022) atoms.

Vanthoffium's melting and boiling points are 1275°C and 3421°C, respectively, corresponding to its liquid ratio of 2.39 (obtained by converting to Kelvin or Rankine scale first), similar to gold. The amount of energy needed to melt one mole of this element is 17 kJ and the amount of energy needed to boil it is 115.3 kJ.

Atomic Edit

Vanthoffium's nucleus comprises of 440 particles (155 protons, 285 neutrons), which together make up almost all of atom's mass packed into such a tiny portion of the atom in volume. The electron configuration and electrons per shell is not what the periodic table would tell because of the spin-orbit coupling due to relativistic effects. Despite it is the first element of the d-block series in period 8, the f-orbital needs one more electron to complete its orbital. The missing f-orbital electron made the d-orbital excess of electrons by one.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other elements heavier than lead, vanthoffium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 440Vh with a half-life of only 372 microseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following examples.

440
155
Vh → 261
102
No + 127
53
I + 52 1
0
n
440
155
Vh → 197
79
Au + 132
54
Xe + 48
22
Ti + 63 1
0
n

One vanthoffium meta state has longer half-life than 440Vh, 443m2Vh, whose half-life is 2.7 milliseconds. The second longest half-life is 370 microseconds, for 442mVh, only 2 microseconds shy of the half-life of 440Vh.

Chemical Edit

Vanthoffium is very unreactive due to its unexpectedly small atomic size caused by high charge density between so many protons and electrons. The most stable oxidation state is +1 (monovalent), and can donate no more than three electrons. Hence this, Vh+ ions is most stable in aqueous solutions, coloring light orange in water but dark red in acetylene. Vanthoffium has the highest ionization energy of any scandium family elements at 9.9 eV. The second highest ionization energy is scandium, 6.6 eV. In response, vanthoffium has the highest electronegativity with the second highest is again scandium.

Compounds Edit

There are examples of vanthoffium compounds despite its noble feature of the element. Vanthoffium(III) nitride (VhN) is a peach crystalline solid. Vanthoffium(I) oxide (Vh2O) is a red powder. Vanthoffium nitrate (VhNO3) is colored green as a powder or in solution. Vanthoffium(I) chloride (VhCl) is a blue ionic solid obtained by reacting either with hydrochloric acid or chlorine gas. Vanthoffium(I) cyanide (VhCN) is a volatile white powder and vanthoffium sulfate (Vh2SO4) is a pale yellow powder. Vanthoffium can also form compounds in the +0 state, such as Vh(SN)2 and Vh(CO)5.

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that vanthoffium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then vanthoffium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. Vanthoffium has an estimated abundance of 5 × 10−42 by mass, which amounts to 1.68 × 1011 kilograms or about three billion people worth of this element in mass.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize vanthoffium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of vanthoffium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 462Vh.

208
82
Pb + 181
73
Ta + 51 1
0
n → 440
155
Vh
272
105
Db + 120
50
Sn + 48 1
0
n → 440
155
Vh
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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