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Vanderwaalsium

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Vanderwaalsium (159Vw)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'van•dər•wuls•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Ludtohnuucjaim (Ln)
/'lud•tō•nüksh•ām/
Systematic name Unpentennium (Upe)
/'ün•pent•en•ē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 7d5
Above element Bohrium (107Bh)
Below element ––
Previous element Amperium (158Ap)
Next element Hundium (160Hu)
Family Manganese family
Series Vanthoffide series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 457.8003 u, 760.1953 yg
Atomic radius 211 pm, 2.11 Å
Van der Waals radius 256 pm, 2.56 Å
Subatomic particles 613
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 454 (159 p+, 295 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.86
Nuclear radius 9.19 fm
Half-life 1.4494 min
Electronic properties
Electron notation 159-9-25
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f14 7d4 8s2 8p2 9s1
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 12, 4, 1
Oxidation states −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4,
+5, +6, +7, +8, +9
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.71
First ionization energy 339.0 kJ/mol, 3.513 eV
Electron affinity 11.1 kJ/mol, 0.115 eV
Covalent radius 205 pm, 2.05 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 457.800 g/mol
Molar volume 13.862 cm3/mol
Density 33.025 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.32 × 1021 g−1
4.34 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 284 pm, 2.84 Å
Speed of sound 4853 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Body centered cubic
Color Maroon
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 402.73 K, 724.91°R
129.58°C, 265.24°F
Boiling point 1784.18 K, 3211.53°R
1511.03°C, 2751.86°F
Liquid range 1381.46 K, 2486.62°R
Liquid ratio 4.43
Triple point 402.62 K, 724.72°R
129.47°C, 265.05°F
@ 78.735 pPa, 5.9056 × 10−13 torr
Critical point 4949.35 K, 8908.83°R
4676.20°C, 8449.16°F
@ 92.5084 MPa, 912.990 atm
Heat of fusion 3.799 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 149.623 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05140 J/(g•K), 0.09253 J/(g•°R)
23.533 J/(mol•K), 42.359 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 9.49 × 10−38
Absolute: 3.18 × 1015 kg

Vanderwaalsium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Vw and atomic number 159. Vanderwaalsium was named in honor of Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837–1923), who worked on equation of state and intermolecular forces; he also modelled an atom as an imaginary hard sphere, now known as Van der Waals radius. This element is known in the scientific literature as unpentennium (Upe), dvi-rhenium, or simply element 159. Vanderwaalsium is the heaviest member of the manganese family (below manganese, technetium, rhenium, and bohrium) and is the fifth member of the vanthoffide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d5.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Vanderwaalsium is a soft, reddish brown (maroon) metal that is solid at room temperature. It is a very dense metal with the density is 33 g/cm3, denser than the densest known naturally occurring element, osmium, whose density is ⅔ that of vanderwaalsium. Aside from its density, one mole of vanderwaalsium is very heavy, weighing 458 grams or about a pound.

The melting point is unusually low for a transition metal and far behind other elements of the manganese family, due to its unique electron configuration featuring electron in the 9s orbital beyond filled 7d3/2 and 8p1/2 split orbitals. The metal liquifies at 265°F, only a bit higher than the boiling point of water. Its boiling point is also low for a transition metal, 2752°F. For comparison, lighter cogeners bohrium and rhenium has melting points of 5859°F and 5766°F, and boiling points 11596°F and 10105°F, respectively.

At room temperature, vanderwaalsium is paramagnetic, meaning it becomes magnetized in the presence of magnetic field. Vw forms spin density waves below 21°F, which is not far from the room temperature of 77°F. This means that this element displays this property if left outdoors on some cold winter days.

Atomic Edit

Vanderwaalsium contains 159 electrons which carry negative charge found surrounding the nucleus. However, the atom does not carry negative charge because the electrons are balanced by the identical number of protons found in the nucleus which carry positive charge. However, the orbital has a negative overall charge while the nucleus has a positive overall charge of identical extent. Its nucleus also contains neutrons, which carry no charge, which outnumber protons by 86%.

Hence its namesake, the van der Waals radius of vanderwaalsium is 256 pm (2.56 Å).

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, vanderwaalsium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 454Vw with a half-life of 87 seconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the examples.

454
159
Vw → 272
105
Db + 132
54
Xe + 50 1
0
n
454
159
Vw → 223
87
Fr + 153
63
Eu + 19
9
F + 59 1
0
n

The second longest-lived isotope is 449Vw, which undergo fission with a half-life of 13.4 seconds.

Vanderwaalsium has several isomers, the most stable being 455m1Vw with a half-life of 51 seconds. Another isomer is 457m2Vw with a half-life of 30 seconds. The rest have half-lives less than a second, most less than a millisecond.

Chemical Edit

Vanderwaalsium most readily give up one electron in the loosely bound 9s orbital to form Vw+ ion, using it to form monovalent compounds. It can also give up five electrons by giving up all four electrons in the 7d3/2 suborbital in addition to 9s orbital to form Vw5+ ion (pentavalent), or plus both 8p1/2 electrons to form Vw7+ (heptavalent). +1 as the most common oxidation state is unlike other manganese family members, whose most common states range from +2 to +4. As a result together with its very low ionization energy and electronegativity, vanderwaalsium is an extremely reactive element, very unlike lighter cogeners. In fact, vanderwaalsium would be the most reactive metal, more reactive than even all the alkali metals. Plus vanderwaalsium is the most electronegative (0.71) and the lowest first ionization energy (3.51 eV) of any element. This means that this reddish brown metal would instantly darken to dark brown upon exposure to air.

In aqueous solutions, Vw+ is pale pink, Vw3+ is orange, and Vw5+ is red. Of these ions, Vw+ is most commonly formed.

Compounds Edit

Vanderwaalsium(V) oxide (Vw2O5) is a dark brown amorphous solid, while vanderwaalsium(I) oxide (Vw2O) is a black amorphous solid. Vanderwaalsium(V) chloride (VwCl5) is a blue crystalline solid while monochloride (VwCl) is a white ionic crystals. Other compounds include Vw3N, Vw2S5, VwF7, VwBr, and Vw3P5.

Vanderwaalsium can form organic compounds, called organovanderwaalsium. Examples are monoethylvanderwaalsium (C2H5Vw), pentabenzylvanderwaalsium ((C6H5CH2)5Vw), and vanderwaalsium acetylide (Vw2C2).

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that vanderwaalsium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then vanderwaalsium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of vanderwaalsium in the universe by mass is 9.49 × 10−38, amounting to 3.18 × 1015 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize vanderwaalsium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of vanderwaalsium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 454Vw.

238
92
U + 165
67
Ho + 51 1
0
n → 454
159
Vw
279
107
Bh + 130
52
Te + 45 1
0
n → 454
159
Vw
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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