|Named after||Johannes Diderik van der Waals|
|Name in Saurian|| Ludtohnuucjaim (Ln)|
|Systematic name|| Unpentennium (Upe)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Vanderwaalsium||Dubnium|
|Element left of Vanderwaalsium||Amperium|
|Element right of Vanderwaalsium||Hundium|
|457.8003 u, 760.1953 yg|
|Atomic radius||211 pm, 2.11 Å|
|van der Waals radius||256 pm, 2.56 Å|
|s||454 (159 p+, 295 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d4 8s2 8p2 9s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 12, 4, 1|
|Oxidation states|| −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7, +8, +9|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||339.0 kJ/mol, 3.513 eV|
|Electron affinity||11.1 kJ/mol, 0.115 eV|
|Molar mass||457.800 g/mol|
|Molar volume||13.862 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.32 × 1021 g−1|
4.34 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||284 pm, 2.84 Å|
|Crystal structure||Body-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 402.73 K, 724.91°R|
|Boiling point|| 1784.18 K, 3211.53°R|
|Liquid range||1381.46 , 2486.62|
|Triple point|| 402.62 K, 724.72°R|
@ 78.735 pPa, 5.9056 × 10−13 torr
|Critical point|| 4949.35 K, 8908.83°R|
@ 92.5084 MPa, 912.990 atm
|Heat of fusion||3.799 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||149.623 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05140 J/(g• ), 0.09253 J/(g• )|
23.533 J/(mol• ), 42.359 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 9.49 × 10−32|
Absolute: 3.18 × 1021 kg
|By atom||5.45 × 10−33|
Vanderwaalsium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Vw and atomic number 159. Vanderwaalsium was named in honor of Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837–1923), who worked on equation of state and intermolecular forces; he also modelled an atom as an imaginary hard sphere, now known as van der Waals radius. This element is known in the scientific literature as unpentennium (Upe), dvi-tantalum, or simply element 159. Vanderwaalsium is the heaviest member of the vanadium family (below vanadium, niobium, tantalum, and dubnium) and is the third member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d3.
Atomic properties Edit
Vanderwaalsium contains 159 electrons which carry negative charge found surrounding the nucleus. However, the atom does not carry negative charge because the electrons are balanced by the identical number of protons found in the nucleus which carry positive charge. However, the orbital has a negative overall charge while the nucleus has a positive overall charge of identical extent. Its nucleus also contains neutrons, which carry no charge, which outnumber protons by 86%.
Hence its namesake, the van der Waals radius of vanderwaalsium is 256 pm (2.56 Å).
Like every other element heavier than lead, vanderwaalsium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 454Vw with a half-life of 22½ seconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the examples.
The second longest-lived isotope is 449Vw, which undergo fission with a half-life of 13.4 seconds.
Vanderwaalsium has several isomers, the most stable being 455m1Vw with a half-life of 51 seconds. Another isomer is 457m2Vw with a half-life of 30 seconds. The rest have half-lives less than a second, most less than a millisecond.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Vanderwaalsium most readily give up one electron in the loosely bound 9s orbital to form Vw+ ion, using it to form monovalent compounds. It can also give up five electrons by giving up all four electrons in the 7d3/2 suborbital in addition to 9s orbital to form Vw5+ ion (pentavalent), or plus both 8p1/2 electrons to form Vw7+ (heptavalent). +1 as the most common oxidation state is unlike other vanadium family members, whose most common states range from +2 to +4. As a result together with its very low ionization energy and electronegativity, vanderwaalsium is an extremely reactive element, very unlike lighter cogeners. In fact, vanderwaalsium would be the most reactive metal, more reactive than even all the alkali metals. Plus vanderwaalsium is the most electronegative (0.71) and the lowest first ionization energy (3.51 eV) of any element. This means that this reddish brown metal would instantly darken to dark brown upon exposure to air.
In aqueous solutions, Vw+ is pale pink, Vw3+ is orange, and Vw5+ is red. Of these ions, Vw+ is most commonly formed.
Vanderwaalsium(V) oxide (Vw2O5) is a dark brown amorphous solid, while vanderwaalsium(I) oxide (Vw2O) is a black amorphous solid. Vanderwaalsium(V) chloride (VwCl5) is a blue crystalline solid while monochloride (VwCl) is a white ionic crystals. Other compounds include Vw3N, Vw2S5, VwF7, VwBr, and Vw3P5.
Vanderwaalsium can form organic compounds, called organovanderwaalsium. Examples are monoethylvanderwaalsium (C2H5Vw), pentabenzylvanderwaalsium ((C6H5CH2)5Vw), and vanderwaalsium acetylide (Vw2C2).
Physical properties Edit
Vanderwaalsium is a soft, reddish brown (maroon) metal that is solid at room temperature. It is a very dense metal with the density is 33 g/cm3, denser than the densest known naturally occurring element, osmium, whose density is ⅔ that of vanderwaalsium. Aside from its density, one mole of vanderwaalsium is very heavy, weighing 458 grams or about a pound.
The melting point is unusually low for a transition metal and far behind other elements of the vanadium family, due to its unique electron configuration featuring electron in the 9s orbital beyond filled 7d3/2 and 8p1/2 split orbitals. The metal liquifies at 265°F, only a bit higher than the boiling point of water. Its boiling point is also low for a transition metal, 2752°F. For comparison, lighter cogeners dubnium and tantalum has melting points of 5159°F and 5462°F, and boiling points 11946°F and 9847°F, respectively.
At room temperature, vanderwaalsium is paramagnetic, meaning it becomes magnetized in the presence of magnetic field. Vw forms spin density waves below 21°F, which is not far from the room temperature of 77°F. This means that this element displays this property if left outdoors on some cold winter days.
It is almost certain that vanderwaalsium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of vanderwaalsium in the universe by mass is 9.49 × 10−32, which amounts to 3.18 × 1021 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of vanderwaalsium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would quickly undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 454Vw.