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Thomsonium

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Thomsonium
Symbol To
Atomic number 132
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'tom•sin•ē•(y)üm/
Named after J. J. Thomson
Name in Saurian Kxedjedaim (Ke)
/'ksedsh•ē•dām/
Systematic name Untribium (Utb)
/'ün•trī•bē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Thomsonium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g12
Element left of Thomsonium Darwinium
Element right of Thomsonium Paulium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 490
Atomic mass 360.9912 u, 599.4399 yg
Atomic radius 173 pm, 1.73 Å
Covalent radius 181 pm, 1.81 Å
van der Waals radius 193 pm, 1.93 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 358 (132 p+, 226 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.71
Nuclear radius 8.49 fm
Half-life 4.9073 y
Decay mode Alpha decay
Decay product 354Fn
Electronic properties
Electron notation 132-8-23
Electron configuration [Og] 5g8 6f2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4
Oxidation states +2, +4, +5, +6
(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.34
First ionization energy 638.3 kJ/mol, 6.615 eV
Electron affinity 155.3 kJ/mol, 1.609 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 360.991 g/mol
Molar volume 93.140 cm3/mol
Density 3.876 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.67 × 1021 g−1
6.47 × 1021 cm−3
Average atomic separation 537 pm, 5.37 Å
Speed of sound 1616 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
Color Lavendar (color)
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 747.09 K, 1344.77°R
473.94°C, 885.10°F
Boiling point 2350.18 K, 4230.32°R
2077.03°C, 3770.65°F
Liquid range 1603.08 K, 2885.55°R
Liquid ratio 3.15
Triple point 747.08 K, 1344.75°R
473.93°C, 885.08°F
@ 477.49 nPa, 3.5815 × 10−9 torr
Critical point 4502.22 K, 8103.99°R
4229.07°C, 7644.32°F
@ 40.1635 MPa, 396.384 atm
Heat of fusion 8.770 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 288.134 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.06342 J/(g•K), 0.11416 J/(g•°R)
22.895 J/(mol•K), 41.211 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 2.81 × 10−26
Absolute: 9.42 × 1026 kg
By atom 2.04 × 10−27

Thomsonium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol To and atomic number 132. Thomsonium was named in honor of J. J. Thomson (1856–1940), who discovered an electron and isotopes and invented mass spectrometer. This element is known in the scientific literature as untribium (Utb) or simply element 132. Thomsonium is the twelfth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g12.

Atomic properties Edit

Thomsonium contains 490 subatomic components, most of these make up the tiny region at the center of the atom, nucleus. The nucleus is positively charged because it contains just positively charged particles (protons) as well as neutrally charged particles (neutrons). Although atom itself has no charge because the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus is negatively charged as electrons carry negative charge. Electrons are found in eight shells with number of electrons in shells varying from 2–40. The following number of electrons per shell in order from closest to farthest from the nucleus are 2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, thomsonium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 358To with a half-life of 4.9 years, alpha decaying to 354Fn. Other isotopes are 360To (3.9 months), 356To (27.1 days), and 355To (4.9 days). Thomsonium also has metastable isomers, the most stable being 359m1To whose half-life is 5 minutes.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Thomsonium is chemically active with nonmetals because of its low ionization energy. The most common oxidation state is +6, which is found in hexavalent compounds like trichalcides, dipnictides, and hexahalides. Thomsonium can also exhibit +2 (divalent), +4 (tetravalent), and +5 (pentavalent) states. In aqueous solutions, however, +4 is most common.

In the metallic form, it turns drastically from lavender to black when exposed to air due to the formation of oxide coating which can be scraped off to reveal lavender metal inside. In the powdery form of metal, it tarnishes instantly, but it burns with brilliant green flame when spark or even a shock is applied to form the highest oxide, ToO3. The metal is very soluble in ethylene and carbon disulfide.

ToO3 is the most common oxide of thomsonium. There are other, less common thomsonium oxides: ToO, ToO2 and To2O5. All oxides are black, plus ToN2. Thomsonium(IV) hydroxide (To(OH)4) forms when it burns in water. ToCl6 is produced when the metal dissolves in hydrochloric acid, and if it dissolves in sulfuric acid, the product is To(SO4)2. Thomsonium(II) carbonate (ToCO3) is a white chalky solid like calcium carbonate, produced as precipitate when thomsonium reacts with carbonic acid. Thomsonium(V) bromide (ToBr5) is produced when metal reacts with hydrobromic acid or with unstable bromides. Thomsonium(VI) sulfide (ToS3) is a white powder produced when it reacts with hydrosulfuric acid.

Physical properties Edit

Thomsonium's density is 378 g/cm3, 710 the mean density of Earth's and similar to Mars'. Density is calculated by dividing molar mass (361.0 g/mol) by molar volume (93.1 cm3/mol). At the room temperature of 77°F (298 K), this element is lavender metallic, but it darkens when heated. In ordinary conditions, atoms arrange to form lattices of face-centered cubic crystals and there are 6½ sextillion atoms in one cubic centimeter of metal.

It is a purple metal at its melting point of 885°F (747 K). On the absolute temperature scale, its boiling point is 3.15 times higher than its melting point. It requires 33 times more energy to boil this element than to melt it.

Occurrence Edit

It is certain that thomsonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of thomsonium in the universe by mass is 2.81 × 10−26, which amounts to 9.42 × 1026 kilograms or close to Neptune's mass (about 16 Earth masses) worth of this element.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of thomsonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 358To.

195
78
Pt + 131
54
Xe + 32 1
0
n → 358
132
To
266
104
Rf + 59
28
Ni + 33 1
0
n → 358
132
To
Elements
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Tn Og
8 Nw G * Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch A Ed Ab Bu

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