|Named after||J. J. Thomson|
|Name in Saurian|| Kxedjedaim (Ke)|
|Systematic name|| Untribium (Utb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Thomsonium||Darwinium|
|Element right of Thomsonium||Paulium|
|360.9912 u, 599.4399 yg|
|Atomic radius||173 pm, 1.73 Å|
|Covalent radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|van der Waals radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|s||358 (132 p+, 226 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g8 6f2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +2, +4, +5, +6|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||638.3 kJ/mol, 6.615 eV|
|Electron affinity||155.3 kJ/mol, 1.609 eV|
|Molar mass||360.991 g/mol|
|Molar volume||93.140 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.67 × 1021 g−1|
6.47 × 1021 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||537 pm, 5.37 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 747.09 K, 1344.77°R|
|Boiling point|| 2350.18 K, 4230.32°R|
|Liquid range||1603.08 , 2885.55|
|Triple point|| 747.08 K, 1344.75°R|
@ 477.49 nPa, 3.5815 × 10−9 torr
|Critical point|| 4502.22 K, 8103.99°R|
@ 40.1635 MPa, 396.384 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.770 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||288.134 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06342 J/(g• ), 0.11416 J/(g• )|
22.895 J/(mol• ), 41.211 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.81 × 10−26|
Absolute: 9.42 × 1026 kg
|By atom||2.04 × 10−27|
Thomsonium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol To and atomic number 132. Thomsonium was named in honor of J. J. Thomson (1856–1940), who discovered an electron and isotopes and invented mass spectrometer. This element is known in the scientific literature as untribium (Utb) or simply element 132. Thomsonium is the twelfth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g12.
Atomic properties Edit
Thomsonium contains 490 subatomic components, most of these make up the tiny region at the center of the atom, nucleus. The nucleus is positively charged because it contains just positively charged particles (protons) as well as neutrally charged particles (neutrons). Although atom itself has no charge because the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus is negatively charged as electrons carry negative charge. Electrons are found in eight shells with number of electrons in shells varying from 2–40. The following number of electrons per shell in order from closest to farthest from the nucleus are 2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4.
Like every other element heavier than lead, thomsonium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 358To with a half-life of 4.9 years, alpha decaying to 354Fn. Other isotopes are 360To (3.9 months), 356To (27.1 days), and 355To (4.9 days). Thomsonium also has metastable isomers, the most stable being 359m1To whose half-life is 5 minutes.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Thomsonium is chemically active with nonmetals because of its low ionization energy. The most common oxidation state is +6, which is found in hexavalent compounds like trichalcides, dipnictides, and hexahalides. Thomsonium can also exhibit +2 (divalent), +4 (tetravalent), and +5 (pentavalent) states. In aqueous solutions, however, +4 is most common.
In the metallic form, it turns drastically from lavender to black when exposed to air due to the formation of oxide coating which can be scraped off to reveal lavender metal inside. In the powdery form of metal, it tarnishes instantly, but it burns with brilliant green flame when spark or even a shock is applied to form the highest oxide, ToO3. The metal is very soluble in ethylene and carbon disulfide.
ToO3 is the most common oxide of thomsonium. There are other, less common thomsonium oxides: ToO, ToO2 and To2O5. All oxides are black, plus ToN2. Thomsonium(IV) hydroxide (To(OH)4) forms when it burns in water. ToCl6 is produced when the metal dissolves in hydrochloric acid, and if it dissolves in sulfuric acid, the product is To(SO4)2. Thomsonium(II) carbonate (ToCO3) is a white chalky solid like calcium carbonate, produced as precipitate when thomsonium reacts with carbonic acid. Thomsonium(V) bromide (ToBr5) is produced when metal reacts with hydrobromic acid or with unstable bromides. Thomsonium(VI) sulfide (ToS3) is a white powder produced when it reacts with hydrosulfuric acid.
Physical properties Edit
Thomsonium's density is 37⁄8 g/cm3, 7⁄10 the mean density of Earth's and similar to Mars'. Density is calculated by dividing molar mass (361.0 g/mol) by molar volume (93.1 cm3/mol). At the room temperature of 77°F (298 K), this element is lavender metallic, but it darkens when heated. In ordinary conditions, atoms arrange to form lattices of face-centered cubic crystals and there are 6½ sextillion atoms in one cubic centimeter of metal.
It is a purple metal at its melting point of 885°F (747 K). On the absolute temperature scale, its boiling point is 3.15 times higher than its melting point. It requires 33 times more energy to boil this element than to melt it.
It is certain that thomsonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of thomsonium in the universe by mass is 2.81 × 10−26, which amounts to 9.42 × 1026 kilograms or close to Neptune's mass (about 16 Earth masses) worth of this element.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of thomsonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 358To.