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Thomsonium

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Thomsonium (132To)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'tom•sin•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Kxedjedaim (Ke)
/'ksedsh•ē•dām/
Systematic name Untribium (Utb)
/'ün•trī•bē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 5g12
Above element ––
Below element ––
Previous element Darwinium (131Dw)
Next element Paulium (133Pl)
Family Thomsonium family
Series Lavoiside series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 360.9912 u, 599.4399 yg
Atomic radius 173 pm, 1.73 Å
Van der Waals radius 193 pm, 1.93 Å
Subatomic particles 490
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 358 (132 p+, 226 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.71
Nuclear radius 8.49 fm
Half-life 4.9073 y
Electronic properties
Electron notation 132-8-23
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g8 6f2 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4
Oxidation states +2, +4, +5, +6
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.34
First ionization energy 638.3 kJ/mol, 6.615 eV
Electron affinity 155.3 kJ/mol, 1.609 eV
Covalent radius 181 pm, 1.81 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 360.991 g/mol
Molar volume 93.140 cm3/mol
Density 3.876 g/cm3
Atomic number density 6.47 × 1021 cm−3
Average atomic separation 537 pm, 5.37 Å
Speed of sound 1616 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face centered cubic
Color Lavendar
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 747.09 K, 473.94°C
885.10°F, 1344.77°R
Boiling point 2350.18 K, 2077.03°C
3770.65°F, 4230.32°R
Liquid range 1603.08 K/°C, 2885.55°F/°R
Liquid ratio 3.15
Triple point 747.08 K, 473.93°C
885.08°F, 1344.75°R
@ 477.49 nPa, 3.5815 × 10−9 torr
Critical point 4502.22 K, 4229.07°C
7644.32°F, 8103.99°R
@ 40.1635 MPa, 396.384 atm
Heat of fusion 8.770 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 288.134 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.06342 J/g/K, 0.11416 J/g/°R
22.895 J/mol/K, 41.211 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 2.81 × 10−26
Absolute: 9.42 × 1026 kg

Thomsonium is the fabricated name of a theoretical element with the symbol To and atomic number 132. Thomsonium was named in honor of J. J. Thomson (1856–1940), who discovered an electron and isotopes and invented mass spectrometer. This element is known in scientific literature as untribium (Utb), or simply element 132. Thomsonium is the twelfth element of the lavoiside series and located in periodic table coordinate 5g12.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Thomsonium's density is 378 g/cm3, 710 the mean density of Earth's and similar to Mars'. Density is calculated by dividing molar mass (361.0 g/mol) by molar volume (93.1 cm3/mol). At the room temperature of 77°F (298 K), this element is lavender metallic, but it darkens when heated. In ordinary conditions, atoms arrange to form lattices of face centered cubic crystals and there are 6½ sextillion atoms in one cubic centimeter of metal.

It is a purple metal at its melting point of 885°F (747 K). On the absolute temperature scale, its boiling point is 3.15 times higher than its melting point. It requires 33 times more energy to boil this element than to melt it.

Atomic Edit

Thomsonium contains 490 subatomic components, most of these make up the tiny region at the center of the atom, nucleus. The nucleus is positively charged because it contains just positively charged particles (protons) as well as neutrally charged particles (neutrons). Although atom itself has no charge because the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus is negatively charged as electrons carry negative charge. Electrons are found in eight shells with number of electrons in shells varying from 2–40. The following number of electrons per shell in order from closest to farthest from the nucleus are 2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 20, 8, 4.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other elements heavier than lead, thomsonium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 358To with a half-life of 4.9 years, alpha decaying to 354Fk. Other isotopes are 360To (3.9 months), 356To (27.1 days), and 355To (4.9 days). Thomsonium also has metastable isomers, the most stable being 359m1To whose half-life is 5 minutes.

Chemical Edit

Thomsonium is chemically active with nonmetals because of its low ionization energy. The most common oxidation state is +6, which is found in hexavalent compounds like trichalcides, dipnictides, and hexahalides. Thomsonium can also exhibit +2 (divalent), +4 (tetravalent), and +5 (pentavalent) states. In aqueous solutions, however, +4 is most common.

In the metallic form, it turns drastically from lavender to black when exposed to air due to the formation of oxide coating which can be scraped off to reveal lavender metal inside. In the powdery form of metal, it tarnishes instantly, but it burns with brilliant green flame when spark or even a shock is applied to form the highest oxide, ToO3. The metal is very soluble in ethylene and carbon disulfide.

Compounds Edit

ToO3 is the most common oxide of thomsonium. There are other, less common thomsonium oxides: ToO, ToO2 and To2O5. All oxides are black, plus ToN2. Thomsonium(IV) hydroxide To(OH)4 form when it burns in water. ToCl6 is produced when the metal dissolves in hydrochloric acid, and if it dissolves in sulfuric acid, the product is To(SO4)2. Thomsonium(II) carbonate (ToCO3) is a white chalky solid like calcium carbonate, produced as precipitate when thomsonium reacts with carbonic acid. Thomsonium(V) bromide (ToBr5) is produced when metal reacts with hydrobromic acid or with unstable bromides. Thomsonium(VI) sulfide (ToS3) is a white powder produced when it reacts with hydrosulfuric acid.

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is certain that thomsonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is extremely rare in the universe. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then thomsonium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element can only practically be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of thomsonium in the universe by mass is 2.81 × 10−26, which amounts to 9.42 × 1026 kilograms or close to Neptune's mass (about 16 Earth masses) worth of this element.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize thomsonium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of thomsonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 358To.

195
78
Pt + 131
54
Xe + 32 1
0
n → 358
132
To
266
104
Rf + 59
28
Ni + 33 1
0
n → 358
132
To
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed
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