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|Name in Saurian|| Kojcaim (Kj)|
|Systematic name|| Unbiquadium (Ubq)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Previous element||Moselium (123Ms)|
|Next element||Daltonium (125Dt)|
|332.7553 u, 552.5531 yg|
|Atomic radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||210 pm, 2.10 Å|
|s||330 (124 p+, 206 n0)|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 6f3 8s2 8p1|
2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 21, 8, 3
|Oxidation states|| +2, +3, +4, +6|
(strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||431.8 kJ/mol, 4.476 eV|
|Electron affinity||33.7 kJ/mol, 0.350 eV|
|Covalent radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|Molar mass||332.755 g/mol|
|Molar volume||17.392 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.81 × 1021 g−1|
3.46 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||307 pm, 3.07 Å|
|Crystal structure||Simple tetragonal|
|Color|| Grayish white|
|Melting point|| 922.03 K, 1659.65°R|
|Boiling point|| 2679.28 K, 4822.70°R|
|Liquid range||1757.24 , 3163.04|
|Triple point|| 921.98 K, 1659.56°R|
@ 3.9859 Pa, 2.9896 × 10−8 torr
|Critical point|| 5000.21 K, 9000.37°R|
@ 39.5262 MPa, 390.095 atm
|Heat of fusion||11.422 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||263.136 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.07319 J/(g• ), 0.13175 J/(g• )|
24.355 J/(mol• ), 43.839 J/(mol• )
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 3.79 × 10−17|
Absolute: 1.27 × 1036 kg
Teslium is the fabricated name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Ts and atomic number 124. Teslium was named in honor of Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), who made revolutionary contributions to electricity and magnetism. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbiquadium (Ubq), or simply element 124. Teslium is the fourth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g4.
The symbol Ts has been proposed for the element ununseptium, whose proposed name is tennessine.
Teslium is a silver metal 19 times denser than water like uranium. Its molar volume is 17.4 cm3/mol, which is calculated by dividing molar mass by density. Teslium has a tetrahedral crystal lattices. The speed of sound, rate of propagation of atoms vibrating, is slow, at 778 m/s, more than twice the speed of sound through the air.
Like most metals, teslium is solid at room temperature. The metal melts at 649°C and boils at 2406°C. Teslium's triple point is virtually identical to its melting point, but under a pressure of 4 pascals, where all three states allow to exist in equilibrium. Below that pressure, liquid teslium would be non-existent. Opposite of triple point on the phase diagram is critical point, which is a boiling point at a minimum pressure where supercritical fluid is stable. For teslium, it is 4727°C and 39½ megapascals.
Hence its name after the pioneer of magnetism, the magnetic ordering of teslium is paramagnetic like most elements (at 64%), meaning it has properties to attract by the presence of external magnetic field caused by unpaired electrons. However, it becomes diamagnetic when cooled to −28°C. Diamagnetism means it can repel in the presence of external field, opposite to that of paramagnetism, and can levitate.
Teslium atom contains 330 nucleons (124 protons, 206 neutrons) that make up the nucleus and well as 124 electrons orbiting around the center. The electrons arrange to form 124-8-22 notation. Since it is the fourth element of the g-block series, g-orbital should contain four electrons, but actually there are none as spin-orbit coupling wants three electrons in f-orbital and one in p-orbital instead.
Like every other element heavier than lead, teslium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 330Ts with a very long half-life of 47.56 billion years, three-and-a-half times longer than the current age of the universe at 13.8 billion years. It alpha decays to another isotope that lasts billions of years, 326Dm. Another interesting isotope is 332Ts with a half-life of 9.5 billion years, over twice as long as the age of the Earth. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 20,000 years and the majority of these have half-lives less than 2 hours.
Like every element beyond calcium, teslium has several metastates, one is very long-lived. 324m1Ts has a half-life of 2203 years, making it the second most stable metastate after 180mTa, the second longest has a half-life of just 2.73 hours for 331m1Ts, the third longest is 7.65 minutes for 333m3Ts, and the fourth longest is 134 milliseconds for 335m2Ts.
As it is typical of lavoisoids, teslium is chemically active and forms wide variety of compounds. Teslium has the electronegativity of 1.02, first ionization energy of 4.48 eV, and atomic radius of 1.81 Å, which show that this metal is quite reactive.
Teslium mainly acquires a +6 oxidation state, meaning it can easily form hexavalent compounds like hexahalides (such as TsF6), trichalcides (TsO3), and dipnictides (TsP2). Teslium can also acquire lower oxistates: +2 (divalent), +3 (trivalent) and +4 (tetravalent). In the +4 state, it can form tetrahalides (TsCl4), dichalcides (TsS2), subpnictides (Ts4N3), and even binary compounds with carbon (TsC) and silicon (TsSi).
Teslium dissolves readily in mineral acids and soon reacts, and forms a soapy solution when dissolved in water. It can even react with acetic acid to form teslium(IV) acetate (Ts(CH3CO2)4), a kind of organoteslium compound. Another such compound is teslium(III) citrate (TsC6H5O7), obtained by reacting the metal with citric acid.
Teslium can easily form halides, including teslium(II) fluoride (TsF2), teslium(IV) fluoride (TsF4), teslium(VI) fluoride (TsF6), teslium(II) chloride (TsCl2): pinkish white crystalline salt, and teslium(IV) chloride (TsF4). Teslium most commonly forms a trioxide, teslium(VI) oxide (TsO3) when exposed to air for a short time. Another chalcide is teslium(VI) sulfide (TsS3), which is a red solid while elemental sulfur is yellow. Teslium(IV) carbide (TsC) is a hard refractive solid obtained when teslium reacts with charcoal in the fire. Teslium(VI) phosphide (TsP2) is a pale blue powder formed when the element reacts with phosphine in the presence of a catalyst.
- Ts + 2 PH3 → TsP2 + 3 H2
Examples of teslium salts are teslium(VI) carbonate (Ts(CO3)3) and teslium(VI) thiocyanate (Ts(SCN)6), which is a yellow liquid whose melting point is 5°C and boiling point 99°C. It can form tetrahedrals, such as Ts(SN)4, obtained when teslium metal dissolves in molten tetrasulfur tetranitride.
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is certain that teslium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, although in theory this element should exist on Earth primordially given its very long half-life of 48 billion years, or as the alpha decay product of maxwellium. This element can only be made naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be made artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial teslium more abundant than natural teslium in the universe. An estimated abundance of teslium in the universe by mass is 3.79 × 10−17, which amounts to 1.27 × 1036 kilograms.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may soon have the capability to synthesize teslium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of teslium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 330Ts.
There had been an attempt to synthesize teslium without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, teslium shall successfully be made here on Earth.