|Named after||William Ramsay|
|Name in Saurian|| Humjed (Hj)|
|Systematic name|| Unseptbium (Usb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Family||Neon family (Aerogens)|
|Element above Ramson||Oganesson|
|Element left of Ramson||Bunsenine|
|508.2227 u, 843.9235 yg|
|Atomic radius||139 pm, 1.39 Å|
|Covalent radius||135 pm, 1.35 Å|
|van der Waals radius||232 pm, 2.32 Å|
|s||504 (172 p+, 332 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p6 9s2 9p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| −4, 0, +2, +4, +6, +8|
(a weakly acidic oxide)
|First ionization energy||1093.8 kJ/mol, 11.336 eV|
|Electron affinity||73.1 kJ/mol, 0.758 eV|
|Molar mass||508.223 g/mol|
|Molar volume||54.070 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.18 × 1021 g−1|
1.11 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||448 pm, 4.48 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 400.78 K, 721.41°R|
|Boiling point|| 423.77 K, 762.79°R|
|Liquid range||22.99 , 41.38|
|Triple point|| 400.76 K, 721.37°R|
@ 63.143 kPa, 473.61 torr
|Critical point|| 465.52 K, 837.94°R|
@ 0.2716 MPa, 2.681 atm
|Heat of fusion||5.162 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||27.664 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05228 J/(g• ), 0.09410 J/(g• )|
26.570 J/(mol• ), 47.826 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 9.80 × 10−37|
Absolute: 3.29 × 1016 kg
|By atom||5.06 × 10−38|
Ramson is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Rs and atomic number 172. Ramson was named in honor of William Ramsay (1852–1916), who discovered noble gases. This element is known in the scientific literature as unseptbium (Usb), dvi-radon, or simply element 172. Ramson is the heaviest aerogen (a more appropriate name than noble gases as not all of these elements are gas) and is the last member of the kirchoffide series, placing this element at 8p6 coordinate on the periodic table. It is also the heaviest element of the 172-element periodic table, although it may not be the heaviest possible element, see transramson element.
Atomic properties Edit
Ramson's atom masses 508.2 daltons and sizing 109 pm in radius. Almost all of atom's volume are occupied by electron orbitals containing 172 electrons in 26 orbitals in 9 shells. Ramson has completed an 8p orbital, but due to relativistic effects, 9s and 9p1/2 orbitals are also filled, both located beyond the valence shell. The atomic nucleus, even though it makes up only a tiny volume of the atom, contains almost all of atom's mass as it contains most of the particles that make up the atom. The nucleus comprises of 172 protons and 332 neutrons, corresponding to its nuclear ratio (neutrons per proton) of 1.93, which is the highest value of any element as heaviest atoms have highest nuclear ratios due to highest nuclear charge.
Like every other element heavier than lead, ramson has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 504Rs with a very brief half-life (t½) of 162 nanoseconds, undergoing spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.
Another isotopes include 502Rs (t½ = 137 nanoseconds), 501Rs (t½ = 16 nanoseconds), and 508Rs (t½ = 971 picoseconds). There are also meta states, the most stable is 506m6Rs with a half-life of 25.5 microseconds.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Because there are electrons in two orbitals and one shell beyond the orbital where electron was added in this element, ramson has only four valence electrons, while every other aerogens have eight. As a result, ramson is unlike any of the lighter homologues chemically. Due to its small atomic size and high electronegativity on the Pauling scale, ramson is unreactive unlike lighter cogener oganesson. Ramson behaves like xenon due to similarity of ionization energies between these elements (ramson: 11.3 eV, xenon: 12.1 eV). Ramson can still form compounds with halogens like xenon, such as RsF4. Ramson forms an oxide RsO2 by hydrolysing ramson tetrafluoride in water with small amounts of sulfuric acid.
+4 is the most common nonzero oxidation state as demonstrated in RsF4 and RsO2, meaning it donates all four outermost electrons to achieve the outermost shell of eight electrons. There are other oxistates, including +6 and +8, which are common like +4. It can even exhibit a −4 state to achieve ninth outermost shell of eight electrons in the form of ramside ion, Rs4−.
Like xenon, ramson can form several compounds. It forms covalent bonds with halogens due to similarity of electronegativities between ramson and halogens, as well as with oxygen and other nonmetals. The most common valency in ramson halides is tetrahalides, such as RsCl4 (white) and RsF4 (white). Other halides include RsF6 (colorless), RsCl2 (lime green), RsBr2 (pink), and RsI2 (light pink). The heaviest element on the extended periodic table can bond with the lightest ordinary element hydrogen to form RsH4 (ramsane), which is a colorless gas. RsO2 is a clear peach liquid, RsO3 is a white solid, and RsO4 is a white solid. The only ramson chalcides other than oxides are RsS (white solid), and RsS2 (white solid with yellowish tinge).
There exists ramson salts, such as Rs(SO4)2 and Rs(CO3)2. Ramsic acid (H2RsO3) is a weak acid with acidity of 6.1 on the pH scale, formed when ramson dioxide mixes with water. This acid can combine with metals to form ramsates, such as CaRsO3 (calcium ramsate), a transparent crystalline solid. In addition to ramsic acid, like xenon, it can also form perramsic acid (H2RsO4), its corresponding salts are perramsate (e.g. SrRsO4).
Ramson can even be part of organic compounds, called organoramson, homologous to organoxenon. Ramson most commonly exhibit +2 and +4 oxistates in those compounds. One such example is difluoromethylramson (Rs(CF3)2), which is a colorless liquid which freezes at 383°R (−60°C) and boils at 747°R (142°C).
Physical properties Edit
At ordinary conditions, ramson is a pale indigo transparent solid, but its vapor state is colorless. The sound travels more than eight times faster through ramson than through the air. Like other aerogens, ramson is nonmetallic, meaning it is an insulator of heat and electricity. Despite it is a heavier homologue of oganesson, ramson is only half as dense, 9.4 g/cm3 vs. 17.3 g/cm3, due to relativistic effects. Atoms in the lattice are separated by an average of 4.56 angstroms and the number of atoms in one cubic centimeter is 1.11 × 1022. Ramson, like other members of this family, is diamagnetic, meaning it creates its own magnetic field in opposition to externally applied magnetic field.
Both phase points of ramson are highest of any element in the group due to its high atomic mass and strength of covalent bonding. Its melting point is 721°R (128°C) and its boiling point is 763°R (151°C). Ramson can form a supercritical fluid above its critical point of 838°R (192°C), 0.272 MPa (2.68 atm). Ramson is one of just five out of 172 elements that has critical point pressures of less than a megapascal.
It is almost certain that ramson doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars, then ramson must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. In the universe, only advanced technological civilizations can produce this element, but barely because it requires so much energy to produce this element, thus it is so unstable. An estimated abundance of ramson in the universe by mass is 9.80 × 10−37, which amounts to 3.29 × 1016 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of ramson, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 504Rs.
Imaginative applications Edit
One of the chief uses of ramson involves low-pressure supercritical fluid, which is stable at a minimum pressure of just 22⁄3 times of that of air. This property makes ramson very useful in dry cleaning, refrigeration, and dyeing. But since this element is so unstable with a very brief lifetime, this application is impractical.