|Named after||Max Planck|
|Name in Saurian|| Fcudsbaim (Fb)|
|Systematic name|| Unbiseptium (Ubs)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Planckium||Maxwellium|
|Element right of Planckium||Boylium|
|343.8481 u, 570.9731 yg|
|Atomic radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|Covalent radius||175 pm, 1.75 Å|
|van der Waals radius||201 pm, 2.01 Å|
|s||341 (127 p+, 214 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g3 6f2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 35, 20, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +5, +7, +8, +9|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||483.6 kJ/mol, 5.012 eV|
|Electron affinity||17.2 kJ/mol, 0.179 eV|
|Molar mass||343.848 g/mol|
|Molar volume||28.688 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.75 × 1021 g−1|
2.10 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||363 pm, 3.63 Å|
|Crystal structure||Centered tetragonal|
|Melting point|| 601.25 K, 1082.26°R|
|Boiling point|| 1647.50 K, 2965.50°R|
|Liquid range||1046.25 , 1883.24|
|Triple point|| 601.24 K, 1082.24°R|
@ 49.751 μPa, 3.7317 × 10−7 torr
|Critical point|| 3866.42 K, 6959.55°R|
@ 85.6933 MPa, 845.730 atm
|Heat of fusion||5.968 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||158.013 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.07711 J/(g• ), 0.13879 J/(g• )|
26.513 J/(mol• ), 47.723 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.88 × 10−22|
Absolute: 9.66 × 1030 kg
|By atom||2.20 × 10−23|
Planckium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Pk and atomic number 127. Planckium was named in honor of Max Planck (1858–1947), who founded quantum theory, Planck's law of black body radiation, Planck's constant, and Planck postulate. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbiseptium (Ubs) or simply element 127. Planckium is the seventh element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g7.
Atomic properties Edit
Plancium's atom comprises of 468 particles, with 73% of these are nucleons, particles that make up the nucleus at the atom's center. Nucleons are category of particles that include protons and neutrons. There are 341 nucleons, 127 of these are positively charged protons that determines its atomic number, while the remaining 214 are neutrons which carry no charge. The remaining 27% of all subatomic particles are electrons found in 23 orbitals in 8 shells. Due to spin-orbit coupling, this element has two electrons in the 6f orbital and two in the 8p orbital. This leaves g-orbital with four less electrons than what is expected based from the periodic table.
Like every other element heavier than lead, planckium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 341Pk with a half-life of 963,620 years, alpha decaying to 337Dt. 345Pk has a half-life of 4,760 years, 342Pk has a half-life of 196 years, and 340Pk has a half-life of 2.60 years. All the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than a month and majority of these have half-lives less than 40 minutes. 334Pk (t½ = 17.7 minutes) is a beta decay product of its most stable maxwellium isotope 334Mw. There are also several metastable isomers, the most stable being 341m2Pk, whose half-life is 4.6 minutes (280 seconds). Other examples of isomers are 343mPk (30 seconds), 344m1Pk (286 milliseconds), and 339mPk (103 milliseconds).
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Planckium has chemical properties similar to some other lavoisoids due to electrons filling in the deeply buried g-orbital. It commonly loses as many as seven or nine electrons due to low binding energy of electrons. The first ionization energy is 5.01 eV, which is the amount of energy required to remove an electron during ionization. The second ionization energy is only slightly higher than first, with the amount of energy needed to lose seven or nine electrons is only about 50–60% higher than energy needed to lose one electron. This would make planckium quite reactive and forms compounds carrying high oxistates easily. For example, pure planckium would tarnish rapidly in the air to form an oxide coating which protects the metal inside from further oxidation. In the powder form, it burns with a brilliant pink flame. The metal gets eaten by mineral acids, most rapidly in hydrochloric acid.
Pk7+, the most common ion, forms black solution, while Pk9+ forms dark brown solution and Pk5+ forms colorless. Due to its high oxistates, planckium can form exotic organic compounds called organoplanckium.
The most common oxide of planckium is planckium(VII) oxide (Pk2O7), which is a black solid. Planckium(VII) chloride (PkCl7) can be created when planckium reacts with hydrochloric acid or chlorides of higher electronegative metals. PkCl7 is a clear liquid or colorless gas with the boiling point of 24.78°C, right about the room temperature. Planckium nonafluoride (PkF9) is a gas with the condensation point of −98°C. Planckium(VII) sulfide (Pk2S7) is a pale yellow solid which can be made when this element reacts with hydrogen sulfide or carbonyl sulfide. Planckium(VIII) carbonate (Pk(CO3)4) is a white powder.
Planckium carries mainly +5 and +7 oxistates in salts. Planckium(V) sulfate (Pk2(SO4)5) and planckium(VII) nitrate (Pk(NO3)7) are the examples. Planckium can form organometallic compounds, known as organoplanckium. Such examples are pentaethylplanckium ((C2H5)5Pk) and pentachloromethylplanckium ((CH2Cl)5Pk).
Physical properties Edit
Planckium is a soft, brittle, greenish gray metal. Its molar mass is 360 g/mol and density of 12 g/cm3, dividing molar mass by density yields a molar volume of 29 cm3/mol. The atoms together form centered tetragonal lattices with atoms arranging to form tetragon, plus one in the center. Each lattice contains nine atoms, separated by an average of 363 pm. Upon heating, however, lattices reshape to face-centered cubic at 266°C.
The melting point is low for a metal, it melts at 328°C to a dull green liquid. It boils more than 1000°C higher than its melting point, at 1374°C. Like all other materials, melting and boiling points are not the same at every conditions. Planckium would have different melting and boiling points at different pressures. Changing pressures affect boiling point, but it has tiny effect on melting point. The triple point of planckium is 328°C and at a pressure of 50 micropascals, the point where all three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas, coexist. The critical point is 3593°C and 86 MPa; above that in both temperature and pressure, planckium exists as a supercritical fluid, whose property resemble both a liquid and gas. The molar heat capacity is 26.51 J/(mol•°C), meaning the amount of energy needed to heat one mole of planckium by 1°C is 26.51 joules.
It is certain that planckium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only practically be made by advanced technological civilizations, however planckium can naturally be made as the beta decay product of maxwellium-334. An estimated abundance of planckium in the universe by mass is 2.88 × 10−22, which amounts to 9.66 × 1030 kilograms or about five solar masses worth of planckium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of planckium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 341Pk.
There had been an attempt to synthesize planckium without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, planckium shall successfully be made here on Earth.