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Physical properties of elements

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Elements by phase

This is a table of 173 elements detailing their physical properties, including color, phase, density, melting point, and boiling point.

Z Name Symbol Class Color Molar mass (g) Molar volume (cm3) Density (g/cm3) Phase Melting point (K) Boiling point (K) Liquid range (K/°C) Liquid ratio
0 Neutronium Nu Nonmetal Colorless 1.009 2.658E−15 3.794E+14 Superfluid 0.00 6.47E+14 6.47E+14
1 Hydrogen H Nonmetal Colorless 1.008 112105.084 0.00000899 Gas 14.01 20.28 6.27 1.45
2 Helium He Nonmetal Colorless 4.033 2259.361 0.00179 Gas 0.00 4.23 4.23
3 Lithium Li Metal Grayish white 7.058 13.462 0.524 Solid 453.65 1615.45 1161.81 3.56
4 Beryllium Be Metal Slate 9.075 4.911 1.848 Solid 1551.16 2772.77 1221.61 1.79
5 Boron B Semimetal Black-brown 11.091 4.689 2.365 Solid 2352.21 3923.18 1570.97 1.67
6 Carbon C Nonmetal Black/gray/colorless 12.099 4.606 2.627 Solid 4577.71 3914.68 −663.03 0.86
7 Nitrogen N Nonmetal Colorless 14.115 11282.231 0.00125 Gas 63.15 77.36 14.21 1.23
8 Oxygen O Nonmetal Colorless 16.132 11289.902 0.00143 Gas 54.37 90.20 35.84 1.66
9 Fluorine F Nonmetal Pale yellow 19.157 11295.905 0.00170 Gas 53.49 85.04 31.54 1.59
10 Neon Ne Nonmetal Colorless 20.165 22433.732 0.000899 Gas 24.56 27.07 2.51 1.10
11 Sodium Na Metal Grayish white 23.190 23.891 0.971 Solid 370.95 1155.57 784.62 3.12
12 Magnesium Mg Metal Grayish white 24.198 13.924 1.738 Solid 922.93 1363.20 440.27 1.48
13 Aluminum Al Metal Gray 27.223 10.086 2.699 Solid 933.47 2792.32 1858.85 2.99
14 Silicon Si Semimetal Dark bluish gray 28.231 12.118 2.330 Solid 1686.55 3537.99 1851.44 2.10
15 Phosphorus P Nonmetal White/red/black/colorless 31.256 17.217 1.815 Solid 317.30 553.65 236.35 1.74
16 Sulfur S Nonmetal Lemon yellow 32.264 15.611 2.067 Solid 388.36 717.75 329.39 1.85
17 Chlorine Cl Nonmetal Pale yellow-green 35.289 10979.201 0.00321 Gas 172.12 239.11 66.99 1.39
18 Argon Ar Nonmetal Colorless 40.331 22605.160 0.00178 Gas 83.81 87.30 3.49 1.04
19 Potassium K Metal Grayish white 39.322 44.048 0.893 Solid 336.53 1031.62 695.10 3.07
20 Calcium Ca Metal Gray 40.330 26.212 1.539 Solid 1114.55 1757.47 642.92 1.58
21 Scandium Sc Metal Grayish white 45.372 15.158 2.993 Solid 1814.46 3109.18 1294.72 1.71
22 Titanium Ti Metal Grayish white 48.397 10.766 4.495 Solid 1940.61 3560.11 1619.50 1.83
23 Vanadium V Metal Gray 51.423 8.548 6.015 Solid 2183.44 3679.91 1496.47 1.69
24 Chromium Cr Metal Gray 52.430 7.330 7.153 Solid 2180.31 2943.60 763.29 1.35
25 Manganese Mn Metal Gray 55.456 7.616 7.281 Solid 1518.87 2334.25 815.38 1.54
26 Iron Fe Metal Gray 56.463 7.170 7.875 Solid 1811.10 3133.92 1322.82 1.73
27 Cobalt Co Metal Gray 59.489 6.718 8.855 Solid 1768.49 3200.28 1431.79 1.81
28 Nickel Ni Metal Goldish grayish white 58.479 6.562 8.912 Solid 1727.98 3185.61 1457.62 1.84
29 Copper Cu Metal Copper 63.522 7.111 8.933 Solid 1357.77 2834.59 1476.82 2.09
30 Zinc Zn Metal Pale bluish gray 64.529 9.047 7.133 Solid 692.68 1180.42 487.75 1.70
31 Gallium Ga Metal Grayish white 69.572 11.776 5.908 Solid 302.91 2476.65 2173.73 8.18
32 Germanium Ge Semimetal Grayish white 74.614 14.018 5.323 Solid 1211.40 3105.68 1894.28 2.56
33 Arsenic As Semimetal Yellow/black/gray 75.622 13.092 5.776 Solid 1089.74 886.504 −203.24 0.81
34 Selenium Se Nonmetal Black/red 80.665 16.773 4.809 Solid 493.65 957.64 463.98 1.94
35 Bromine Br Nonmetal Red-brown 80.664 25.932 3.111 Liquid 265.90 331.95 66.05 1.25
36 Krypton Kr Nonmetal Colorless 84.698 22689.613 0.00373 Gas 115.79 119.93 4.14 1.04
37 Rubidium Rb Metal Grayish white 85.705 56.186 1.525 Solid 312.46 960.51 648.05 3.07
38 Strontium Sr Metal Yellowish grayish white 88.731 33.659 2.636 Solid 1050.18 1654.68 604.50 1.58
39 Yttrium Y Metal Grayish white 89.738 20.078 4.469 Solid 1794.96 3617.88 1822.92 2.02
40 Zirconium Zr Metal Grayish white 90.746 13.925 6.517 Solid 2127.53 4681.94 2554.40 2.20
41 Niobium Nb Metal Gray 93.771 10.936 8.574 Solid 2750.00 5017.02 2267.02 1.82
42 Molybdenum Mo Metal Gray 98.814 9.730 10.156 Solid 2896.22 4912.05 2015.83 1.70
43 Technetium Tc Metal Gray 98.813 8.819 11.205 Solid 2430.31 4537.81 2107.50 1.87
44 Ruthenium Ru Metal Grayish white 102.847 8.500 12.100 Solid 2606.77 4422.50 1815.73 1.70
45 Rhodium Rh Metal Grayish white 103.855 8.365 12.416 Solid 2237.16 3968.35 1731.19 1.77
46 Palladium Pd Metal Grayish white 106.880 8.908 11.998 Solid 1827.95 3236.36 1408.40 1.77
47 Silver Ag Metal Grayish white 107.888 10.274 10.501 Solid 1234.93 2435.44 1200.51 1.97
48 Cadmium Cd Metal Gray 114.947 13.224 8.692 Solid 594.22 1040.00 445.78 1.75
49 Indium In Metal Gray 115.955 15.862 7.310 Solid 429.75 2345.11 1915.35 5.46
50 Tin Sn Metal Gray 120.998 16.605 7.287 Solid 505.08 2875.19 2370.11 5.69
51 Antimony Sb Semimetal Gray 124.023 18.553 6.685 Solid 903.78 1859.72 955.94 2.06
52 Tellurium Te Semimetal Gray 131.083 21.032 6.233 Solid 722.66 1261.50 538.84 1.75
53 Iodine I Nonmetal Dark purplish gray 128.056 25.988 4.928 Solid 386.85 457.55 70.70 1.18
54 Xenon Xe Nonmetal Colorless 133.098 22606.528 0.00589 Gas 161.36 165.03 3.66 1.02
55 Cesium Cs Metal Yellowish gray 134.106 69.629 1.926 Solid 301.59 944.38 642.79 3.13
56 Barium Ba Metal Grayish white 138.140 38.161 3.620 Solid 1000.01 2169.74 1169.73 2.17
57 Lanthanum La Metal Grayish white 140.157 22.789 6.150 Solid 1791.42 3737.45 1946.03 2.09
58 Cerium Ce Metal Grayish white 141.164 20.851 6.770 Solid 1071.22 3696.74 2625.52 3.45
59 Praseodymium Pr Metal Grayish white 142.172 21.003 6.769 Solid 1203.98 3792.85 2588.88 3.15
60 Neodymium Nd Metal Grayish white 143.180 20.422 7.011 Solid 1293.94 3346.64 2052.70 2.59
61 Promethium Pm Metal Grayish white 146.205 20.131 7.263 Solid 1315.15 3273.31 1958.16 2.49
62 Samarium Sm Metal Grayish white 153.265 20.384 7.519 Solid 1346.51 2066.55 720.05 1.53
63 Europium Eu Metal Grayish white 154.273 29.462 5.236 Solid 1094.87 1801.60 706.74 1.65
64 Gadolinium Gd Metal Grayish white 159.315 20.164 7.901 Solid 1586.42 3545.75 1959.32 2.24
65 Terbium Tb Metal Grayish white 160.323 19.491 8.226 Solid 1629.24 3503.21 1873.96 2.15
66 Dysprosium Dy Metal Grayish white 163.348 19.095 8.554 Solid 1685.50 2840.41 1154.91 1.69
67 Holmium Ho Metal Grayish white 166.373 18.898 8.804 Solid 1747.20 2973.38 1226.17 1.70
68 Erbium Er Metal Grayish white 167.381 18.456 9.069 Solid 1802.29 3140.94 1338.65 1.74
69 Thulium Tm Metal Grayish white 170.406 18.293 9.316 Solid 1818.18 2223.19 405.01 1.22
70 Ytterbium Yb Metal Grayish white 175.449 25.440 6.896 Solid 1092.44 1468.96 376.52 1.34
71 Lutetium Lu Metal Grayish white 176.457 17.937 9.838 Solid 1935.87 3674.91 1739.04 1.90
72 Hafnium Hf Metal Steel gray 179.482 13.474 13.320 Solid 2506.19 4875.82 2369.63 1.95
73 Tantalum Ta Metal Dark grayish blue 182.507 11.134 16.392 Solid 3290.08 5731.45 2441.36 1.74
74 Tungsten W Metal Gray 185.532 9.636 19.253 Solid 3694.87 5827.77 2132.90 1.58
75 Rhenium Re Metal Gray 188.557 9.060 20.811 Solid 3458.79 5869.30 2410.51 1.70
76 Osmium Os Metal Slate 193.600 8.571 22.587 Solid 3306.14 5285.26 1979.12 1.60
77 Iridium Ir Metal Grayish white 194.608 8.625 22.562 Solid 2718.99 4700.93 1981.94 1.73
78 Platinum Pt Metal Grayish white 196.624 9.162 21.460 Solid 2041.55 4097.73 2056.18 2.01
79 Gold Au Metal Yellow 198.641 10.302 19.282 Solid 1337.34 3129.04 1791.70 2.34
80 Mercury Hg Metal Grayish white 203.683 15.050 13.534 Liquid 234.32 629.88 395.56 2.69
81 Thallium Tl Metal Grayish white 206.708 17.524 11.796 Solid 577.49 1745.70 1168.21 3.02
82 Lead Pb Metal Slate 209.733 18.492 11.342 Solid 600.61 2021.84 1421.23 3.37
83 Bismuth Bi Metal Gray 210.741 21.489 9.807 Solid 544.55 1837.41 1292.86 3.37
84 Polonium Po Semimetal Gray 209.732 22.512 9.317 Solid 526.90 1235.42 708.52 2.34
85 Astatine At Nonmetal Black 211.748 31.837 6.651 Solid 575.26 611.03 35.77 1.06
86 Radon Rn Nonmetal Colorless 223.851 23009.632 0.00973 Gas 202.01 211.45 9.44 1.05
87 Francium Fr Metal Grayish white 224.859 120.432 1.867 Liquid 295.02 933.69 638.67 3.16
88 Radium Ra Metal Grayish white 227.884 44.448 5.127 Solid 973.33 1412.95 439.62 1.45
89 Actinium Ac Metal Grayish white 228.892 22.731 10.069 Solid 1323.61 3471.12 2147.51 2.62
90 Thorium Th Metal Grayish white 233.935 19.952 11.725 Solid 2023.11 5061.25 3038.15 2.50
91 Protactinium Pa Metal Gray 232.925 15.157 15.367 Solid 1844.57 4299.65 2455.08 2.33
92 Uranium U Metal Grayish white 239.985 12.661 18.955 Solid 1407.51 4403.68 2996.17 3.13
93 Neptunium Np Metal Grayish white 238.975 11.801 20.250 Solid 916.77 4174.80 3258.03 4.55
94 Plutonium Pu Metal Grayish white 246.035 12.400 19.841 Solid 913.21 3501.44 2588.23 3.83
95 Americium Am Metal Grayish white 245.026 17.903 13.686 Solid 1449.28 2284.20 834.92 1.58
96 Curium Cm Metal Grayish white 249.060 18.430 13.514 Solid 1618.17 3379.02 1760.85 2.09
97 Berkelium Bk Metal Grayish white 249.059 16.850 14.781 Solid 1259.20 3182.95 1923.75 2.53
98 Californium Cf Metal Grayish white 253.093 16.760 15.101 Solid 1153.34 1744.90 591.57 1.51
99 Einsteinium Es Metal Grayish white 254.100 18.863 13.471 Solid 1132.78 2871.24 1738.47 2.53
100 Fermium Fm Metal Grayish white 259.143 15.947 16.251 Solid 1832.17 3256.31 1424.15 1.78
101 Mendelevium Md Metal Grayish white 260.151 16.384 15.878 Solid 1110.22 2417.10 1306.88 2.18
102 Nobelium No Metal Grayish white 263.176 15.062 17.472 Solid 1099.90 1999.09 899.19 1.82
103 Lawrencium Lr Metal Grayish white 267.210 15.007 17.806 Solid 1921.27 3205.05 1283.78 1.67
104 Rutherfordium Rf Metal Grayish white 268.218 11.456 23.413 Solid 2408.97 5768.41 3359.44 2.39
105 Dubnium Db Metal Grayish white 274.269 9.382 29.234 Solid 3121.58 6892.20 3770.62 2.21
106 Seaborgium Sg Metal Bluish gray 278.302 7.964 34.944 Solid 3443.71 7581.36 4137.65 2.20
107 Bohrium Bh Metal Grayish white 281.328 7.530 37.359 Solid 3510.14 7697.71 4187.57 2.19
108 Hassium Hs Metal Grayish white 284.353 6.907 41.171 Solid 3285.24 7033.35 3748.11 2.14
109 Meitnerium Mt Metal Greenish gray 289.395 7.747 37.358 Solid 2945.10 6541.51 3596.41 2.22
110 Darmstadtium Ds Metal Grayish white 292.420 8.395 34.834 Solid 2276.21 5310.12 3033.91 2.33
111 Roentgenium Rg Metal Grayish white 289.394 10.066 28.749 Solid 1050.18 3104.04 2053.86 2.96
112 Copernicium Cn Metal Gray 293.427 12.376 23.709 Liquid 161.07 421.93 260.87 2.62
113 Becquerelium Bc Metal Gray 295.444 16.109 18.340 Solid 725.55 1440.58 715.03 1.99
114 Flerovium Fl Metal Gray 300.486 20.844 14.416 Solid 338.92 415.98 77.05 1.23
115 Lazarium Lz Metal Vermilion 301.494 22.344 13.493 Solid 665.46 1394.93 729.46 2.10
116 Livermorium Lv Metal Gray 307.545 23.809 12.917 Solid 649.00 1054.64 405.63 1.63
117 Jointium J Semimetal Black 312.588 28.392 11.010 Solid 618.12 822.81 204.69 1.33
118 Moscovium Mc Nonmetal Colorless 315.613 23.150 13.634 Solid 331.69 348.52 16.83 1.05
119 Newtonium Nw Metal Grayish white 319.647 115.321 2.772 Liquid 293.42 927.86 634.44 3.16
120 Galilinium Gl Metal Gray 322.672 46.776 6.898 Solid 953.38 1348.50 395.12 1.41
121 Lavoisium Ls Metal Apricot 327.714 25.270 12.969 Solid 950.13 1986.71 1036.58 2.09
122 Democritium Dm Metal Grayish white 328.722 20.091 16.362 Solid 1312.85 2004.19 691.34 1.53
123 Moselium Ms Metal Yellowish gray 333.765 17.971 18.572 Solid 1849.76 2622.14 772.38 1.42
124 Teslium Ts Metal Grayish white 332.755 17.392 19.133 Solid 922.03 2679.28 1757.24 2.91
125 Daltonium Dt Metal Bluish gray 334.772 18.794 17.813 Solid 1025.97 2244.17 1218.20 2.19
126 Maxwellium Mw Metal Gray 336.788 23.593 14.275 Solid 935.37 1401.43 466.06 1.50
127 Planckium Pk Metal Greenish gray 343.848 28.688 11.986 Solid 601.25 1647.50 1046.25 2.74
128 Boylium By Metal Gray 345.865 35.400 9.770 Solid 387.21 1322.48 935.27 3.42
129 Berzelium Bz Metal Purplish gray 350.907 48.232 7.275 Liquid 281.16 1134.88 853.72 4.04
130 Franklinium Fk Metal Bluish gray 353.932 54.420 6.504 Solid 409.68 914.70 505.02 2.23
131 Darwinium Dw Metal Gray 356.957 71.373 5.001 Solid 655.20 1551.01 895.80 2.37
132 Thomsonium To Metal Lavendar 360.991 93.140 3.876 Solid 747.09 2350.18 1603.08 3.15
133 Paulium Pl Metal Dark blue 364.016 82.746 4.399 Solid 832.56 3099.89 2267.33 3.72
134 Arrhenium Ah Metal Grayish white 369.059 76.809 4.805 Solid 976.90 1600.52 623.62 1.64
135 Meyerium My Metal Turquoish gray 372.084 69.951 5.319 Solid 920.45 1720.23 799.79 1.87
136 Cavendishium Cv Metal Dark turquoish gray 376.118 63.813 5.894 Solid 801.98 1897.68 1095.70 2.37
137 Feynmanium Fy Metal Gray 377.126 57.478 6.561 Solid 589.26 1608.36 1019.10 2.73
138 Chadwickium Ch Metal Grayish white 380.151 52.933 7.182 Solid 701.57 1065.81 364.24 1.52
139 Astonium An Metal Brownish gray 383.176 55.242 6.936 Solid 826.51 1475.66 649.15 1.79
140 Edisonium Ed Metal Dark gray 382.166 43.675 8.750 Solid 1147.11 1811.39 664.28 1.58
141 Dumasium Du Metal Grayish white 388.218 57.328 6.772 Solid 921.89 1979.28 1057.39 2.15
142 Butlerovium Bv Metal Brownish gray 388.217 67.201 5.777 Solid 1088.22 2244.17 1155.96 2.06
143 Abeggium Ab Metal Gray 394.268 51.998 7.582 Solid 655.59 2904.24 2248.65 4.43
144 Scheelium Sh Metal Brownish gray 398.302 39.521 10.078 Solid 821.40 3398.15 2576.75 4.14
145 Heisenbergium Hi Metal Gray 401.327 42.784 9.380 Solid 1122.20 3585.21 2463.01 3.19
146 Davyum Da Metal Cerise 405.361 32.683 12.403 Solid 1386.39 3437.26 2050.86 2.48
147 Boltzmannium Bo Metal Grayish white 406.369 25.799 15.751 Solid 789.32 4137.88 3348.56 5.24
148 Faradium Fa Metal Teal 411.411 35.931 11.450 Solid 607.17 5510.26 4903.09 9.08
149 Avogadrium Av Metal Yellow 416.453 28.090 14.825 Solid 688.25 4700.20 4011.95 6.83
150 Schrodium So Metal Green 422.505 44.176 9.564 Solid 464.10 917.75 453.65 1.98
151 Hertzium Hr Metal Turquoish gray 428.556 96.948 4.420 Solid 1308.35 2920.16 1611.82 2.23
152 Wittenium Wt Metal Tan 426.538 49.801 8.565 Solid 1410.30 3412.12 2001.82 2.42
153 Diracium Dr Metal Grayish white 436.623 37.742 11.569 Solid 1202.46 2510.32 1307.86 2.09
154 Lewisium Le Metal Pale peach 440.657 31.275 14.090 Solid 1744.63 3100.70 1356.07 1.78
155 Vanthoffium Vh Metal Lime green 443.682 26.119 16.987 Solid 1548.37 3694.19 2145.82 2.39
156 Hawkinium Hk Metal Grayish white 444.690 17.438 25.501 Solid 1040.32 3155.53 2115.21 3.03
157 Kelvinium Ke Metal Blue 450.741 15.818 28.495 Solid 1335.03 2243.97 908.94 1.68
158 Amperium Ap Metal Red 453.767 15.285 29.687 Solid 799.13 1051.72 252.59 1.32
159 Vanderwaalsium Vw Metal Maroon 457.800 13.862 33.025 Solid 402.73 1784.18 1381.46 4.43
160 Hundium Hu Metal Purplish gray 460.825 12.695 36.300 Solid 571.10 2233.50 1662.40 3.91
161 Fraunhoferium Fh Metal Dark green 465.868 11.617 40.103 Solid 682.60 2604.95 1922.35 3.82
162 Madelungium Ma Metal Hot pink 463.850 10.407 44.569 Solid 2758.66 4947.08 2188.42 1.79
163 Keplerium Kp Metal Orange 470.910 10.059 46.813 Solid 1580.25 3365.78 1785.53 2.13
164 Gibbium Gb Metal Brownish gray 478.978 10.455 45.812 Solid 1007.67 1668.56 660.89 1.66
165 Pasturium Ps Metal Grayish white 485.029 65.712 7.381 Solid 366.16 1032.58 666.42 2.82
166 Hubbium Hb Metal Peach 488.054 43.963 11.101 Solid 1203.56 1602.65 399.10 1.33
167 Kirchoffium Kf Metal Indigo 483.010 28.645 16.862 Solid 1403.63 1345.14 −58.49 0.96
168 Bornium Bn Metal Gray 494.105 25.727 19.206 Solid 308.02 500.91 192.88 1.63
169 Joulium Ju Metal Brown 495.113 27.379 18.084 Solid 441.60 923.71 482.11 2.09
170 Helmholtzium Hm Metal Black 499.146 29.441 16.954 Solid 672.23 1331.56 659.33 1.98
171 Bunsenium Bu Semimetal Dark gray 502.172 31.331 16.028 Solid 579.36 755.86 176.50 1.30
172 Ramsium Rs Nonmetal Pale indigo 508.223 54.070 9.399 Solid 400.78 423.77 22.99 1.06

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