Symbol Pl
Atomic number 133
Pronunciation /'pul•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Linus Pauling & Wolfgang Pauli
Name in Saurian Fuicaim (Fc)
Systematic name Untritrium (Utt)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Paulium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g13
Element left of Paulium Thomsonium
Element right of Paulium Arrhenium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 494
Atomic mass 364.0163 u, 604.4633 yg
Atomic radius 162 pm, 1.62 Å
Covalent radius 186 pm, 1.86 Å
van der Waals radius 192 pm, 1.92 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 361 (133 p+, 228 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.71
Nuclear radius 8.51 fm
Half-life 12.537 h
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 133-8-23
Electron configuration [Og] 5g8 6f3 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 40, 21, 8, 4
Oxidation states +2, +3, +4, +5, +6
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.23
First ionization energy 624.3 kJ/mol, 6.470 eV
Electron affinity 48.9 kJ/mol, 0.507 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 364.016 g/mol
Molar volume 82.746 cm3/mol
Density 4.399 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.65 × 1021 g−1
7.28 × 1021 cm−3
Average atomic separation 516 pm, 5.16 Å
Speed of sound 1956 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Body-centered cubic
Color Navy blue
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 832.56 K, 1498.60°R
559.41°C, 1038.93°F
Boiling point 3099.89 K, 5579.80°R
2826.74°C, 5120.13°F
Liquid range 2267.33 K, 4081.20°R
Liquid ratio 3.72
Triple point 832.56 K, 1498.60°R
559.41°C, 1083.93°F
@ 195.63 pPa, 1.4673 × 10−12 torr
Critical point 6498.58 K, 11697.44°R
6225.43°C, 11237.77°F
@ 114.6951 MPa, 1131.956 atm
Heat of fusion 8.674 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 312.929 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.06083 J/(g•K), 0.10949 J/(g•°R)
22.142 J/(mol•K), 39.856 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 1.98 × 10−29
Absolute: 6.62 × 1023 kg
By atom 1.43 × 10−30

Paulium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Pl and atomic number 133. Paulium was named in honor of Linus Pauling (1901–1994), who studied the nature of chemical bonds and the structures of molecules; also honoring Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958), who proposed the spin theory with his exclusion principle. This element is known in the scientific literature as untritrium (Utt) or simply element 133. Paulium is the thirteenth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g13.

Atomic properties Edit

Paulium contains 133 protons and 228 neutrons that make up the nucleus, as well as 133 electrons surrounding the nucleus. Its mass number is 361, corresponding to the number of nucleons. But the real atomic mass is about 364 daltons to include electrons and both nucleons having masses slightly over one dalton.

It is assumed that there are 13 electrons in the 5g orbital since it is the thirteenth element of the g-block series, but due to smearing effects, there are only eight.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, paulium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 361Pl with a half-life of 12.5 hours. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.

Pl → 181
Ta + 142
Nd + 38 1

All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 40 minutes while majority of these have half-lives less than 3 seconds. Paulium has isomers, which are excited states of isotopes. The longest-lived isomer is 358m1Pl with a half-life of 88.1 hours, seven times longer than the most stable ground state isotope. The second longest-lived, 363m2Pl, has a half-life of just 19.8 seconds.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Paulium is a reactive element that most commonly forms paulium(V) and the oxidation states ranging from +2 to +6. In aqueous solutions, paulium(III) (orange) is however most common.

Paulium loses blue color and luster when exposed to air due to the formation of oxide PlO2, but in the powder form, it burns with brilliant orange flame when a spark or even a shock is applied to form the highest oxide PlO3. Due to its basic nature of metal, it forms a base when dissolved in water and neutralizes acids to form paulium salts.

PlO3 is a gray amorphous solid obtained when metal exposes to the air or burned in the presence of oxygen. Paulium reacting with halogens would most likely form pentahalides, such as PlCl5, which is a white crystalline solid. Halides can be oxidized in water to form oxyhalides, such as PlOCl3 when PlCl5 is oxidized.

PlCl5 + H2O → PlOCl3 + 2 HCl

Paulium(III) carbonate (Pl2(CO3)3) is a white chalky solid like limestone (CaCO3). Paulium(III) sulfide (Pl2S3) is a reddish purple crystalline solid, paulium(IV) sulfide (PlS2) is a pale green powder, and paulium(V) sulfide (Pl2S5) is a reddish purple crystalline solid. Paulium can form selenide with +2 oxidation state, PlSe, which is bright yellow amorphous solid. Paulium nitrides are PlN, Pl3N5, and PlN2.

Paulates (PlO2−
) are found in compounds such as yttrium paulate (Y2(PlO4)3) and zinc paulate (Zn2(PlO4)3).

Organopaulium are organometallic compounds of paulium. The three examples are paulium acetylide (Pl2C2), paulium pentacarbonyl (Pl(CO)5), and paulium methanide (Pl(CH2)2).

Physical properties Edit

Unlike most metals, which are grayish white, paulium is a navy blue metal, due to outermost electrons oscillating only at blue region of the spectrum at low intensity instead of oscillating at ultraviolet wavelength as is the case for most metals. It has a density of 4.4 g/cm3, about 45 the mean density of Earth's. Like most metals, paulium is ductile and malleable, and lustrous. Paulium has a cubic crystal structure.

Its melting point is 833 K (1039°F), meaning it is solid on every planet in our solar system from the coldest planet (Neptune) to the hottest planet (Venus). Its liquid range is relatively wide as its boiling point is 3100 K (2827°C).

Occurrence Edit

It is certain that paulium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of paulium in the universe by mass is 1.98 × 10−29, which amounts to 6.62 × 1023 kilograms or about the mass of Mars worth of paulium.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of paulium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 361Pl.

Au + 131
Xe + 33 1
n → 361
Pu + 89
Y + 28 1
n → 361
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ck Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Ws Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Oc Lb
10 Io Ly