Not to be confused with neutronium.
|Named after||Isaac Newton|
|Name in Saurian|| Donkedaim (Dn)|
|Systematic name|| Ununennium (Uue)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Family||Hydrogen family (Alkali metals)|
|Element above Newtonium||Francium|
|Element right of Newtonium||Galileum|
|319.6468 u, 530.7860 yg|
|Atomic radius||240 pm, 2.40 Å|
|Covalent radius||259 pm, 2.59 Å|
|van der Waals radius||318 pm, 3.18 Å|
|s||317 (119 p+, 198 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 8s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8, 1|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +3|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||436.7 kJ/mol, 4.526 eV|
|Electron affinity||63.1 kJ/mol, 0.654 eV|
|Molar mass||319.647 g/mol|
|Molar volume||115.321 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.88 × 1021 g−1|
5.22 × 1021 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||576 pm, 5.76 Å|
|Crystal structure||Body-centered cubic|
|Color|| Grayish white|
|Melting point|| 293.42 K, 528.15°R|
|Boiling point|| 927.86 K, 1670.15°R|
|Liquid range||634.44 , 1142.00|
|Triple point|| 293.42 K, 528.15°R|
@ 19.529 nPa, 1.4648 × 10−10 torr
|Critical point|| 1877.97 K, 3380.35°R|
@ 32.1246 MPa, 317.046 atm
|Heat of fusion||2.617 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||94.595 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.11487 J/(g•|
36.717 J/(mol• ), 66.090 J/(mol• ) ), 0.20676 J/(g• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 3.10 × 10−26|
Absolute: 1.04 × 1027 kg
|By atom||2.55 × 10−27|
Newtonium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Nw and atomic number 119. Newtonium was named in honor of Isaac Newton (1642–1727), father of modern physics who developed three laws of motion and law of universal gravitation. This element is known in the scientific literature as ununennium (Uue), eka-francium, or simply element 119. Newtonium is the seventh alkali metal and located in the periodic table coordinate 8s1, meaning it is the first period 8 element.
Atomic properties Edit
Newtonium contains 119 protons and 198 neutrons that make up the nucleus, corresponding to its nuclear ratio of 1.66. Newtonium is the lightest element to have 8 energy levels and 20 orbitals. According to the Madelung rule, an electron would occupy in the 8s orbital with its first electron. To equal the charge equal to 119 protons, there must be 119 electrons since electrons carry same amount of opposite charge as protons.
Like every other element heavier than lead, newtonium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 317Nw with a half-life of 3 months, which is about 6000 times longer than the most stable isotope of above element francium whose half-life is just 22 minutes for 223Fr. It alpha decays to 313Tn. Another example of isotope is 325Nw, which beta decays to 325G with a half-life of 15 days. Also there are metastable isomers, the longest is 318mNw whose half-life is 7.8 days and decays to 318Nw (t½ = 28.9 days) through gamma emission. The second longest m-isotope is 321mNw with a half-life of 6.2 hours. The third longest is 319mNw at 4.3 minutes.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
It is expected from periodic trend that newtonium is even more reactive than all lighter homologues since the atom would be even bigger with the additional shell. However, because there are so many electrons in so many orbitals and shells and so many protons that make up big nucleus, strong attractive forces between those would decrease its atomic size. In consequence to this, an electron in the outermost orbital is not as easily removed than otherwise would be, which in turn decrease the reactivity of newtonium. Higher ionization energy than francium would be required to remove an electron and so would have higher electronegativity. Newtonium would then have chemical properties similar to rubidium and cesium. Like all other alkali metal elements, newtonium exhibits a strong +1 oxidation state (monovalent), meaning it can only need to give up the only electron in its outermost orbital and forms Nw+ ions when dissolved in water. However, due to shorter separation between outermost shell and the next shell further in, newtonium is also the first alkali metal to exhibit a +3 oxidation state (trivalent), meaning it can give up an 8s electron and both 7p1/2 electrons. Newtonium would still burn in the air to form an oxide and water to form a strong base.
Since newtonium is a very reactive element, it can form a lot of different compounds. Newtonium monofluoride (NwF) is a pale peach crystalline salt, while newtonium trifluoride (NwF3) is a pale blue crystalline salt. Newtonium monochloride (NwCl): white crystalline salt, while newtonium trichloride (NwCl3): pink crystalline salt. Newtonium(I) oxide (Nw2O) and newtonium(III) oxide (Nw2O3) are both white solids. Newtonium(I) hydroxide (NwOH) is a white powder that is a strong base when dissolved in water. Newtonium(I) nitrate (NwNO3) is a pale yellow powder when Nw2O is cautiously reacted with nitric acid.
- Nw2O + 2 HNO3 → 2 NwNO3 + H2O
- 2 Nw + 2 H2SO4 → Nw2(SO4)3 + H2SO3 + Nw2O
- 6 Nw + H2SO3 → H2S + 3 Nw2O
Newtonium halides can hydrolyze in water to form newtonium oxyhalides in the +3 oxistate for Nw, like NwF→NwOF and NwCl→NwOCl. There are other compounds of newtonium, like Nw2S, Nw3N, NwN, NwBr, NwI, NwAt, NwJ, and Nw2Se.
Newtonium don't just form inorganic compounds, but organic compounds as well. Such newtonium compounds are called organonewtonium. There are few examples: newtonium tert-butoxide (Nw(CH3)3CO), newtonium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (((Nw(CH3)3Si)2)NNw), newtonium sucrose (C12H21O11Nw), newtonium stearate (C18H35O2Nw), and newtonium formate (NwHCO2).
Physical properties Edit
Newtonium is a silvery liquid metal at the room temperature of 25°C (77°F, 537°R), but it freezes very near that temperature at 20°C (68°F, 528°R), just above the average world temperature of 15°C (59°F, 518°R) and right about the traditional room temp. It freezing point is a couple degrees below the freezing point of the lighter homologue francium, still below the room temperature, consistent with decreasing and narrowing trend of melting points with increasing weights of alkali metals. Similar trend is observed for boiling points. Newtonium boils at 655°C (1210°F, 1670°R), low enough for wood fire to boil this liquid. Newtonium has a liquid ratio of 3.16, identical in value to francium and similar to lighter homologues. Its liquid range is 1142°R, very similar to rubidium, cesium, and francium.
Like phase points, density increases with increasing atomic numbers of alkali metals. In this case, newtonium's density is 2.77 g/cm3, denser than every lighter alkali metal. Its molar volume is 115.32 cm3/mol, and molar mass 319.65 g/mol. The sound travels through thin rod of this metal at 786 m/s (0.488 mi/s). Atoms arrange to form body-centered cubic, a feature every alkali metal exhibit. Another property that all alkali metal exhibit is paramagnetism, including newtonium.
Newtonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. An estimated abundance of newtonium in the universe by mass is 3.10 × 10−26, which amounts to 1.04 × 1027 kilograms or over half a Jupiter worth of this element in mass. This element can theoretically be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be made artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial newtonium more abundant than natural newtonium in the universe.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of newtonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 317Nw.
There had been couple of failed attempts to synthesize newtonium without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, newtonium shall successfully be made here on Earth.