|Named after||Henry Moseley|
|Name in Saurian|| Mejocaim (Mj)|
|Systematic name|| Unbitrium (Ubt)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element below Moselium||Martinium|
|Element left of Moselium||Democritium|
|Element right of Moselium||Teslium|
|333.7648 u, 554.2294 yg|
|Atomic radius||183 pm, 1.83 Å|
|Covalent radius||178 pm, 1.78 Å|
|van der Waals radius||219 pm, 2.19 Å|
|s||331 (123 p+, 208 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 6f1 7d1 8s2 8p1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 20, 8, 3|
|Oxidation states|| +3, +4, +5|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||460.9 kJ/mol, 4.776 eV|
|Electron affinity||−113.7 kJ/mol, −1.179 eV|
|Molar mass||333.765 g/mol|
|Molar volume||17.971 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.80 × 1021 g−1|
3.35 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||310 pm, 3.10 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Color|| Yellowish gray|
|Melting point|| 1849.76 K, 3329.57°R|
|Boiling point|| 2622.14 K, 4719.86°R|
|Liquid range||772.38 , 1390.29|
|Triple point|| 1849.76 K, 3329.56°R|
@ 304.20 Pa, 2.2817 torr
|Critical point|| 5508.40 K, 9915.11°R|
@ 93.5800 MPa, 923.566 atm
|Heat of fusion||17.549 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||271.545 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06329 J/(g•|
21.123 J/(mol• ), 38.021 J/(mol• ) ), 0.11391 J/(g• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 8.99 × 10−16|
Absolute: 3.01 × 1037 kg
|By atom||7.08 × 10−17|
Moselium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Ms and atomic number 123. Moselium was named in honor of Henry Moseley (1887–1915), who discovered the atomic number and reordered elements on the periodic table. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbitrium (Ubt) or simply element 123. Moselium is the third element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g3.
This element has an alternative name vandenbroekium (Vb), honoring Antonius van den Broek (1870–1926), who was the first to realize that the element numbers in the periodic table corresponds to the charge of its nucleus, which was tested by Moseley in the concept of atomic number.
Atomic properties Edit
Moselium contains 123 electrons that are balanced by 123 protons to make the atom neutral. Moselium is expected to have three electrons in the 5g orbital, but due to relativistic effects, there are actually no electron in the g-orbital, but there are two in f-orbital and one in p-orbital. In addition to protons in the nucleus, there are 208 neutrons, corresponding to its mass number 331 and nuclear ratio 1.69.
Moselium atom sizes at 183 pm (1.83 Å) in radius, which is 22000 times larger than its nucleus in radius, whose value is 8.27 fm (0.0000827 Å). Its bond length, the distance about halfway between moselium and another atom in a compound, is 178 pm (1.78 Å).
Like every other element heavier than lead, moselium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 331Ms with a long half-life of 736 million years. It alpha decays to 327Ls. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 4400 years and the majority of these have half-lives less than five months.
Moselium has several meta states like every other element since calcium. The longest lived is 323mMs with a half-life of just 5 seconds, followed by 3 seconds for 328mMs, and then 130 milliseconds for 329mMs.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Since moselium has no electrons in the g-orbital but at least one beyond the g-orbital, the most stable oxistate is +5 to achieve electron configuration of copernicium plus filled 7p3/2 suborbital and one each in 6f and 7d orbitals. Ms5+ needs to bond to elements carrying negative ions totalling to this magnitude to neutralize it, forming pentavalent compounds. For example, Ms5+ needs to bond to five halide ions which carry −1 to form a neutral compound. The bond between positive ion and negative ion is known as ionic bond.
There are also two more, less stable oxistates of moselium, +3 (trivalent) and +4 (tetravalent). Moselium forms +3 state in the Ms3+, which has the electron configuration of [Og] 6f2, while Ms4+ has the configuration [Og] 6f1.
Moselium would be very reactive due to its unique electron arrangement and would quickly lose luster when exposed to air. It would react with water to form a hydroxide, acids to form salts, and organic compounds to form organomoselium compounds.
Moselium can form numerous compounds. Moselium(V) oxide (Ms2O5) is a gray solid formed when metal tarnishes in the air that contains portions of oxygen. Moselium(V) hydroxide (Ms(OH)5) formed when metal reacts with water. Moselium(V) sulfate (Ms2(SO4)5) is a crimson precipitate when moselium reacts with sulfuric acid.
Moselium reacts most vigorously with halogens or corresponding acids. Examples are moselium(III) chloride (MsCl3), moselium(V) chloride (MsCl5), moselium(III) bromide (MsBr3), and moselium(V) iodide (MsI5).
Moselium(III) nitride (MsN) formed when moselium reacts with pure nitrogen or ammonia. Moselium can form refractive solids when bonded to boron. Moselium(III) boride (MsB) is a greenish black refractive solid with the melting point of 5998°R, while moselium(V) boride (Ms3B5) is a black refractive solid with the melting point of 7351°R. Pinkish white moselium(V) sulfide (Ms2S5) form when moselium reacts with powdery sulfur or hydrogen sulfide. Moselium(IV) carbide (MsC), like borides, is a refractive solid with high melting point. There are three species of moselium hydrides: MsH3, MsH4, and MsH5, all of which are colorless gases at room temperature.
There are number of organomoselium compounds such as triethylmoselium, formed when moselium trihydride reacts with ethanol.
- MsH3 + 3 C2H5OH → (C2H5)3Ms + 3 H2O
Physical properties Edit
Moselium is a yellowish gray metal that shows goldish luster. Its density is more than 181⁄2 g/cm3 and sound travels through the thin rod of metal at 970 m/s. Liquid moselium is stable from 1530°R to 4720°R; it exists in the solid state below the range while it is gaseous above the range. In the solid state, moselium forms face-centered cubic that transforms to rhombohedral upon cooling to 227°R and to base-centered cubic upon heating to 910°R. At room temperature, the average atomic separation is 3.10 Å, but distance between atoms increase upon heating while they decrease upon cooling. Because of this, the substance grows upon heating while it shrinks upon cooling, a phenomenon known as thermal expansion.
Moselium is diamagnetic like adjacent elements, meaning it repels in the presence of magnetic field, causing levitation when laying on the surface. Below 22°R, moselium is superdiamagnetic (a property of superconductor), meaning magnetic permeability is completely nil.
It is certain that moselium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. This element can theoretically be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be made artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial moselium more abundant than natural moselium in the universe. An estimated abundance of moselium in the universe by mass is 8.99 × 10−16, which amounts to 3.01 × 1037 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of moselium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 331Ms.