|Named after||James Clerk Maxwell|
|Name in Saurian|| Mupnoccaim (Mn)|
|Systematic name|| Unbihexium (Ubh)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element below Maxwellium||Chandrasekharium|
|Element left of Maxwellium||Daltonium|
|Element right of Maxwellium||Planckium|
|336.7883 u, 559.2500 yg|
|Atomic radius||167 pm, 1.67 Å|
|Covalent radius||182 pm, 1.82 Å|
|van der Waals radius||197 pm, 1.97 Å|
|s||334 (126 p+, 208 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g2 6f3 8s2 8p1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 34, 20, 9, 3|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +4, +6, +7, +8|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||374.0 kJ/mol, 3.877 eV|
|Electron affinity||55.7 kJ/mol, 0.577 eV|
|Molar mass||336.788 g/mol|
|Molar volume||23.593 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.79 × 1021 g−1|
2.55 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||340 pm, 3.40 Å|
|Crystal structure||Base-centered orthorhombic|
|Melting point|| 935.37 K, 1683.67°R|
|Boiling point|| 1401.43 K, 2522.58°R|
|Liquid range||466.06 , 838.91|
|Triple point|| 935.27 K, 1683.49°R|
@ 192.53 Pa, 1.4441 torr
|Critical point|| 2955.14 K, 5319.26°R|
@ 57.4017 MPa, 566.512 atm
|Heat of fusion||10.038 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||138.960 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.08053 J/(g• ), 0.14496 J/(g• )|
27.123 J/(mol• ), 48.821 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 6.80 × 10−16|
Absolute: 2.28 × 1037 kg
|By atom||5.30 × 10−17|
Maxwellium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Mw and atomic number 126. Maxwellium was named in honor of James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879), who first developed the electromagnetic theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbihexium (Ubh) or simply element 126. Maxwellium is the sixth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g6.
Atomic properties Edit
Maxwellium has 126 protons, hence its atomic number, and 208 neutrons that make up the nucleus. Its atomic mass, summing up all of the subatomic particles within the atom, including electrons, is 336.7883 daltons.
There are 126 electrons in eight energy levels and 24 orbitals. Due to relativistic effects, maxwellium has three electrons in the 6f orbital and one in the 8p orbital. This leaves 5g orbital with only two electrons instead of six as if the Madelung rule is followed.
Maxwellium, like every other trans-lead element, has no stable isotope. However, the most stable isotope, 334Mw, is extremely long. Its half-life is 117 billion years, roughly 8½ times longer than the current age of the universe, beta decaying to 334Pk. Since maxwellium has the atomic number 126, it is a magic number and would have closed proton shell. Maxwellium is the peak member of the island of stability.
There are other long-lived isotope of maxwellium. 331Mw has a half-life of 83 billion years, alpha decaying to 327Ts, 335Mw has a half-life of 304 million years, beta decaying to 335Pk, 332Mw has a half-life of 23 million years, alpha decaying to 328Ts, and 336Mw has a half-life of 206 thousand years, beta decaying to 336Pk. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 100 thousand years and majority of these have half-lives less than 200 years.
There are numerous metastable isomers, including 337m4Mw, 333m3Mw, 334mMw, 331m2Mw, and 330mMw. The longest-lived isomer is 333m3Mw with a half-life of 80 days, transforming to 333Mw by emitting gamma rays.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Like other lavoisoids, maxwellium is quite reactive. Its first ionization energy is 3.88 eV, lowest among the lavoisoids. This lowest state translates to its highest chemical reactivity. Low ionization energy means that this element can easily give up electrons during chemical reactions and can most easily form hexavalent compounds, meaning maxwellium carries +6 oxistate in those compounds.
In elemental form, maxwellium would react violently with mineral acids, especially hydrochloric acid, to form ionic salts. It would tarnish in the air very rapidly due to the formation of oxide, but in the finely divided form, it would spontaneously burn.
Maxwellium can form a variety of compounds when this element reacts with air, water, acids, halogens, and other nonmetals. Maxwellium(VI) oxide (MwO3) is a gray oxide formed when this metal exposes to air for five to ten minutes. Maxwellium(VIII) fluoride (MwF8) is a dark green salt formed when this metal reacts with fluorides of less reactive metal or with hydrofluoric acid. Maxwellium(IV) sulfate (Mw(SO4)2) is a light yellow powder with the melting point close to the room temperature at 42°C. MwCl6 is a white crystalline salt formed when the metal reacts with hydrochloric acid or with chlorides of less reactive metal. Maxwellium(IV) cyanide (Mw(CN)4) is an orange toxic powder.
Physical properties Edit
Maxwellium is a paramagnetic gray metal at room temperature. Maxwellium has a base-centered orthorhombic crystal lattice, meaning the atoms form cubes with different lengths, with an atom in the top and bottom faces. The average separation between maxwellium atoms is 3.40 Å. The sound would travel through this metal at 678 m/s, which is very slow for a metal but twice the speed through the air. Maxwellium's density is 141⁄4 g/cm3, molar volume of 233⁄5 cubic centimeters, and molar mass of 3364⁄5 grams.
Maxwellium is a liquid from 662°C to 1528°C (1224°F to 2783°F). Varying pressures cause substances including this one to melt and boil at different temperatures, a reason why it has properties like triple point and critical point.
It is certain that maxwellium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but giving its extremely long half-life of 117 billion years, maxwellium should exist primordially on Earth. Naturally, this element can only be produced in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Maxwellium can be produced mainly by fusing nickel into californium through r-process. It is theoretically the heaviest element possible to be produced in supernovae. Additionally, maxwellium can also be produced in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial maxwellium more abundant than natural maxwellium in the universe. An estimated abundance of maxwellium in the universe by mass is 6.80 × 10−16, which amounts to 2.28 × 1037 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of maxwellium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 334Mw.
There had been an attempt to synthesize maxwellium without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, maxwellium shall successfully be made here on Earth.
Imaginative applications Edit
Because maxwellium is only slightly radioactive with an extremely long half-life of 117 billion years, this metal can be used in a variety of applications. It can alloy with other metals to improve strength and resist corrosion. This element can also be used to absorb neutrons in nuclear reactors without causing fission.