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Madelungium

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Madelungium (162Ma)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'ma•del•un•gē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Mutocidwaim (Mu)
/'m(y)ü•tōs•id•wām/
Systematic name Unhexbium (Uhb)
/'ün•heks•bē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 7d8
Above element Darmstadtium (110Ds)
Below element ––
Previous element Fraunhoferium (161Fh)
Next element Keplerium (163Kp)
Family Nickel family
Series Vanthoffide series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 463.8498 u, 770.2407 yg
Atomic radius 106 pm, 1.06 Å
Van der Waals radius 167 pm, 1.67 Å
Subatomic particles 622
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 460 (162 p+, 298 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.84
Nuclear radius 9.23 fm
Half-life 6.4866 h
Electronic properties
Electron notation 162-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f14 7d8 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 16, 4
Oxidation states −2, 0, +2, +4, +6, +8
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.60
First ionization energy 562.0 kJ/mol, 5.825 eV
Electron affinity 63.3 kJ/mol, 0.656 eV
Covalent radius 127 pm, 1.27 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 463.850 g/mol
Molar volume 10.407 cm3/mol
Density 44.569 g/cm3
Atomic number density 5.79 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 259 pm, 2.59 Å
Speed of sound 4126 m/s
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Crystal structure Face centered cubic
Color Hot pink
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 2758.66 K, 2485.51°C
4565.93°F, 4965.60°R
Boiling point 4947.08 K, 4673.93°C
8445.08°F, 8904.75°R
Liquid range 2188.42 K/°C, 3939.15°F/°R
Liquid ratio 1.79
Triple point 2756.62 K, 2483.47°C
4562.25°F, 4961.92°R
@ 507.67 Pa, 0.0038078 torr
Critical point 10897.59 K, 10624.44°C
19155.99°F, 19615.66°R
@ 67.3460 MPa, 664.655 atm
Heat of fusion 26.487 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 478.550 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05183 J/g/K, 0.09330 J/g/°R
24.043 J/mol/K, 43.278 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 3.93 × 10−35
Absolute: 1.32 × 1018 kg

Madelungium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Ma and atomic number 162. Madelungium was named in honor of Erwin Madelung (1881–1972), who stated that atomic orbitals are filled in order of n + l quantum numbers (known as Madelung rule). This element is known in scientific literature as unhexbium (Uhb), dvi-platinum, or simply element 162. Madelungium is the heaviest member of the nickel family (below nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium) and is the eighth member of the vanthoffide series; this element is located in periodic table coordinate 7d8.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Madelungium is a hard, hot pink refractive metal that is ductile and malleable. The color of that metal is far unlike most other metals, which are gray, but vivid colors of metals in period 8, including madelungium, are common. It is due to high electromagnetic forces caused by very high number of electrons packed close together, this phenomenon is called quantum effect.

Like most metals, madelungium is solid at room temperature (537°R, 25°C). Its melting and boiling points are high. It has a liquid range of 3939°R (2188°C) between 4966°R (2486°C) (melting point) and 8905°R (4674°C) (boiling point). Its liquid ratio is 1.79, obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point using absolute temperature scale (in Rankine or Kelvin scales).

This hot pink metal is twice as dense as osmium, the densest known naturally-occurring element. The density of 44.57 g/cm3 combined with small volume of 10.4 cm3 in one mole would make this molar substance heavy, weighing 464 grams (16.36 ounces). In a molar volume, there are about 58 sextillion madelungium atoms, under six times more atoms than there are stars in the observable universe.

Atomic Edit

Madelungium contains 496 nucleons, hence its mass number. Nucleons are protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus. There are 162 protons, hence its atomic number, and 404 neutrons; dividing neutron number and proton number would yield a nuclear ratio of 2.06. Outside of the nucleus, there are 162 electrons residing in 9 shells and 25 orbitals, 23 are full. Like the last two elements, madelungium has one 9s electron due to spin-orbit coupling.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other trans-lead elements, madelungium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 460Ma with a half-life (t½) of 6½ hours, which unusually long for elements as heavy as this element. Madelungium is at its peak of the "second island of stability." It still undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following examples.

460
162
Ma → 209
83
Bi + 197
79
Au + 54 1
0
n
460
162
Ma → 205
81
Tl + 152
62
Sm + 39
19
K + 64 1
0
n

Like most elements, fraunhoferium has several meta states, which are excited energy states of isotopes. The most stable meta state is 460mMa with a half-life of 1.05 minutes. The second longest is 459m3Ma, whose half-life is just 30 milliseconds; the third longest is 465m1Ma, whose half-life is 13 milliseconds.

Chemical Edit

Madelungium is assumed to resemble other nickel family members nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium in chemical properties. But because relativistic effects is a norm for elements just as heavy as this, madelungium may deviate chemical properties from other members. Its electronegativity (1.60) and first ionization energy (5.83 eV) for madelungium are quite a drop-off from other members, which there was increasing trends from up to down. As a result, madelungium is not unreactive like three of the heaviest lighter cogeners. It has two main oxidation states, +4 and +8 with −2, +2 and +6 as less stable states; Ma4+ (light red) is most stable in aqueous solutions.

As a metal, it dissolves and reacts readily in mineral acids, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, liberating hydrogen gas while forming madelungium halides. It also reacts with water slowly to form a base of moderate strength. In the pure form, madelungium is stable in dry air but it gradually oxidizes in the presence of moisture.

Compounds Edit

MaO2 is yellowish gray powder; MaO4 is a bluish gray amorphous solid. MaCl4 is a dark green liquid which freezes at 518°R (14°C); MaCl8 is a colorless gas which condenses at 327°R (−91°C). MaBr4 and MaF8 are brown ionic solid and colorless gas, respectively. Ma(SO4)2 and Ma(NO3)4 can be obtained by dissolving this hot pink metal in sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively.

There are compounds of less common oxidation states, including MaO (+2), MaN2 (+6), and Ru2[Ma(CO)5] (−2). In organomadelungium compounds, madelungium is commonly bonded to four carbon atoms since +4 is the most stable oxistate. One example of such compound is tetramethylmadelungium (Ma(CH3)4 or MaMe4), which is a colorless crystals.

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that madelungium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then madelungium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of madelungium in the universe by mass is 3.93 × 10−35, which amounts to 1.32 × 1018 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize madelungium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of madelungium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 460Ma.

208
82
Pb + 202
80
Hg + 50 1
0
n → 460
162
Ma
291
112
Cn + 120
50
Sn + 49 1
0
n → 460
162
Ma

Applications Edit

Because madelungium is hot pink, the metal can be used in jewelry for girls and women, but the metal sometimes oxidizes to reduce beauty of jewelry. The metal is most useful during time periods of low humidity such as during winter months. If oxidized, it can be cleaned using reducing agents. If alloyed with small amount of other metal such as silver, madelungium would be lot more incorrosive, thus make it more useful for all-year round jewelry.

It can also be used in electronics since it is a very good conductor of electricity, even as pure metal or as an alloy. However, these applications are useless due to instability with respect to radioactivity. So this metal can only be worn for one day before transmuting to an alloy of two product elements.

Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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