|Named after||Erwin Madelung|
|Name in Saurian|| Mutocidwaim (Mu)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexbium (Uhb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Madelungium||Hassium|
|Element left of Madelungium||Fraunhoferium|
|Element right of Madelungium||Keplerium|
|463.8498 u, 770.2407 yg|
|Atomic radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|Covalent radius||199 pm, 1.99 Å|
|van der Waals radius||229 pm, 2.29 Å|
|s||460 (162 p+, 298 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d7 8s2 8p2 9s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 15, 4, 1|
|Oxidation states|| −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||505.4 kJ/mol, 5.238 eV|
|Electron affinity||32.6 kJ/mol, 0.337 eV|
|Molar mass||463.850 g/mol|
|Molar volume||10.407 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.30 × 1021 g−1|
5.79 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||259 pm, 2.59 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 758.66 K, 1365.60°R|
|Boiling point|| 2947.08 K, 5304.75°R|
|Liquid range||2188.42 , 3939.15|
|Triple point|| 758.02 K, 1364.44°R|
@ 507.67 nPa, 3.8078 × 10−9 torr
|Critical point|| 7897.59 K, 14215.66°R|
@ 67.3460 MPa, 664.655 atm
|Heat of fusion||7.187 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||278.550 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05183 J/(g• ), 0.09330 J/(g• )|
24.043 J/(mol• ), 43.278 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 3.93 × 10−29|
Absolute: 1.32 × 1024 kg
|By atom||2.23 × 10−30|
Madelungium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Ma and atomic number 162. Madelungium was named in honor of Erwin Madelung (1881–1972), who stated that atomic orbitals are filled in order of n + l quantum numbers (known as Madelung rule). This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexbium (Uhb), dvi-osmium, or simply element 162. Madelungium is the heaviest member of the iron family (below iron, ruthenium, osmium, and hassium) and is the sixth member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d6.
This element has an alternative name janetium (Ja), honoring Charles Janet (1849–1932), who suggested that each row of the periodic table corresponds to one value of n + ℓ.
Atomic properties Edit
Madelungium contains 460 nucleons, hence its mass number. Nucleons are protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus. There are 162 protons, hence its atomic number, and 298 neutrons; dividing neutron number and proton number would yield a nuclear ratio of 1.84.
Madelungium is the fourth consecutive element to have an electron in the 9s orbital. As a result, this element has 9 shells and 26 orbitals.
Like every other trans-lead elements, madelungium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 460Ma with a half-life (t½) of 28⁄9 hours, which is extremely long for elements in this region of the periodic table. It still undergoes spontaneous fission though, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the examples.
Like most elements, fraunhoferium has several meta states, which are excited energy states of isotopes. The most stable meta state is 460mMa with a half-life of 1.05 minutes. The second longest is 459m3Ma, whose half-life is just 30 milliseconds; the third longest is 465m1Ma, whose half-life is 13 milliseconds.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Madelungium is assumed to resemble other iron family members iron, palladium, platinum, and hassium in chemical properties. But because relativistic effects is a norm for elements just as heavy as this, madelungium may deviate chemical properties from other members. Its electronegativity (1.03) and first ionization energy (5.24 eV) for madelungium are quite a drop-off from other members, which there was increasing trends from up to down. As a result, madelungium is not unreactive like three of the heaviest lighter cogeners. It has a main oxidation states of +4, Ma4+ (light red) is most stable in aqueous solutions.
As a metal, it dissolves and reacts readily in mineral acids, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, liberating hydrogen gas while forming madelungium halides. It also reacts with water slowly to form a base of mediocre strength. In the pure form, madelungium is stable in dry air but it gradually oxidizes in the presence of moisture.
MaO2 is yellowish gray powder; MaO is a bluish gray amorphous solid. MaCl4 is a dark green liquid which freezes at 518°R (14°C); MaCl7 is a colorless gas which condenses at 327°R (−91°C). MaBr4 and MaF7 are brown ionic solid and colorless gas, respectively. Ma(SO4)2 and Ma(NO3)4 can be obtained by dissolving this hot pink metal in sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively.
There are compounds of less common oxidation states, including Ma2O (+1), MaN2 (+6), and Ru2[Ma(CO)5] (−2). In organomadelungium compounds, madelungium is commonly bonded to four carbon atoms using +4 oxistate. Example of such compounds are tetramethylmadelungium (Ma(CH3)4 and MaMe4), both are colorless crystals.
Physical properties Edit
Madelungium is a soft, hot pink metal that is not very ductile nor malleable. The color of that metal is far unlike most other metals, which are gray, but vivid colors of metals in period 8 are common. It is due to high electromagnetic forces caused by very high number of electrons packed very close together, this phenomenon is called quantum effect.
Like most metals, madelungium is solid at room temperature (537°R, 25°C). It has a comparitively low melting point but its boiling point is about intermediate for a metal. It has a liquid range of 3939°R (2188°C) between 1366°R (486°C) (melting point) and 5305°R (2674°C) (boiling point). Its liquid ratio is 3.88, obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point using absolute temperature scale (in Rankine or Kelvin scale).
This hot pink metal is twice as dense as the element above it osmium, the densest known naturally-occurring element. The density of 44.57 g/cm3 combined with small volume of 10.4 cm3 in one mole would make this molar substance heavy, weighing 464 grams (16.36 ounces). In a molar volume, there are about 58 sextillion madelungium atoms, under six times more atoms than there are stars in the observable universe.
It is almost certain that madelungium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of madelungium in the universe by mass is 3.93 × 10−29, which amounts to 1.32 × 1024 kilograms, which would be enough to make two objects the mass of Mars made out of pure madelungium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of madelungium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 460Ma.
Imaginative applications Edit
Because madelungium is hot pink, the metal can be used in jewelry for girls and women, but the metal sometimes oxidizes to reduce beauty of jewelry. The metal is most useful during time periods of low humidity, such as during winter months. If oxidized, it can be cleaned using reducing agents. If alloyed with small amounts of other metal such as silver, madelungium would be lot more incorrosive, thus making it more useful for all-year-round jewelry.
It can also be used in electronics since it is a very good conductor of electricity, even as pure metal or as an alloy. However, these applications are useless due to instability with respect to radioactivity. So this metal can only be worn for one day before transmuting to an alloy of two product elements.