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Liquid ratio

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Liquid ratio is a thermodynamic ratio of a liquid obtained by dividing boiling point by melting point of a substance in absolute temperature scales (in kelvin or rankine scales). This ratio is used for defining range of kinetic stability of its liquid state. If the substance has higher boiling point than its melting point, then its liquid ratio is greater than one; if the substance has lower boiling point than its melting point, then its liquid ratio is less than one, meaning the substance does not form a liquid state and would sublimes (meaning it changes directly from solid to gas) when heated to its boiling point or deposits (meaning it changes directly from gas to solid) when it cools to its boiling point.

Substances have an average liquid ratio of about 1.8, meaning their boiling points tend to be about 1.8 times the absolute temperature of their melting points. The substance with the highest liquid ratio is galinstan (an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin), whose liquid ratio is 9.40. Faradium has the highest liquid ratio of any element, at 9.08, followed by gallium (8.18), and avogadrium (6.83).

Examples Edit

Substance Melting point Boiling point Liquid ratio
Acetic acid 289 K (521°R) 391 K (705°R) 1.35
Acetone 178 K (320°R) 329 K (592°R) 1.85
Aluminum 933 K (1680°R) 2792 K (5026°R) 2.99
Ammonia 195 K (352°R) 240 K (432°R) 1.23
Amperium 799 K (1438°R) 1052 K (1893°R) 1.32
Argon 84 K (151°R) 87 K (157°R) 1.04
Arsenic 1090 K (1962°R) 887 K (1596°R) 0.81
Avogadrium 688 K (1239°R) 4700 K (8460°R) 6.83
Berzelium 281 K (506°R) 1134 K (2043°R) 4.04
Bromine 266 K (479°R) 332 K (597°R) 1.25
Calcium 1115 K (2006°R) 1757 K (3163°R) 1.58
Carbon 4578 K (8240°R) 3915 K (7046°R) 0.86
Carbon dioxide 218 K (392°R) 195 K (350°R) 0.89
Carbon disulfide 162 K (292°R) 319 K (575°R) 1.97
Carbon monoxide 68 K (123°R) 82 K (147°R) 1.20
Cavendishium 935 K (1684°R) 1401 K (2523°R) 1.50
Chlorine 172 K (310°R) 239 K (430°R) 1.39
Copernicium 161 K (290°R) 422 K (759°R) 2.62
Copper 1358 K (2444°R) 2834 K (5102°R) 2.09
Democritium 1313 K (2363°R) 2004 K (3608°R) 1.53
Ethanol 159 K (286°R) 352 K (633°R) 2.21
Faradium 607 K (1093°R) 5510 K (9918°R) 9.08
Flerovium 339 K (610°R) 416 K (749°R) 1.23
Fluorine 53 K (96°R) 85 K (153°R) 1.59
Galilinium 953 K (1716°R) 1348 K (2427°R) 1.41
Galinstan 254 K (457°R) 2385 K (4293°R) 9.40
Gallium 303 K (545°R) 2477 K (4458°R) 8.18
Gibbium 1008 K (1814°R) 1669 K (3003°R) 1.66
Gold 1337 K (2407°R) 3129 K (5632°R) 2.34
Helium 0.95 K (1.72°R) 4.23 K (7.61°R) 4.43
Hydrogen 14 K (25°R) 20 K (37°R) 1.45
Hydrogen cyanide 261 K (470°R) 299 K (538°R) 1.15
Hydrogen sulfide 191 K (344°R) 213 K (384°R) 1.12
Indium 430 K (774°R) 2345 K (4221°R) 5.46
Iodine 387 K (696°R) 458 K (824°R) 1.18
Iron 1811 K (3260°R) 3134 K (5641°R) 1.73
Keplerium 1580 K (2844°R) 3366 K (6058°R) 2.13
Lazarium 725 K (1306°R) 1395 K (2511°R) 1.92
Lead 601 K (1081°R) 2022 K (3639°R) 3.37
Magnesium 923 K (1661°R) 1363 K (2454°R) 1.48
Mercury 234 K (422°R) 630 K (1134°R) 2.69
Methane 91 K (163°R) 112 K (202°R) 1.23
Neptunium 917 K (1650°R) 4175 K (7515°R) 4.55
Newtonium 293 K (528°R) 928 K (1670°R) 3.16
Nitric oxide 109 K (197°R) 121 K (217°R) 1.10
Nitrogen 63 K (114°R) 77 K (139°R) 1.23
Nitrogen dioxide 262 K (471°R) 294 K (530°R) 1.12
Oxygen 54 K (98°R) 90 K (162°R) 1.66
Phosphorus 317 K (571°R) 554 K (997°R) 1.74
Platinum 2042 K (3675°R) 4098 K (7376°R) 2.01
Plutonium 913 K (1644°R) 3501 K (6303°R) 3.83
Potassium 337 K (606°R) 1032 K (1857°R) 3.07
Ramsium 1201 K (2161°R) 1254 K (2257°R) 1.04
Silicon 1687 K (3036°R) 3538 K (6368°R) 2.10
Silicon dioxide 1903 K (3426°R) 2504 K (4508°R) 1.32
Silver 1235 K (2223°R) 2435 K (4384°R) 1.97
Sodium 371 K (668°R) 1156 K (2080°R) 3.12
Sodium chloride 1074 K (1933°R) 1686 K (3035°R) 1.57
Sodium hydroxide 591 K (1064°R) 1661 K (2990°R) 2.81
Sulfur 388 K (699°R) 718 K (1292°R) 1.85
Sulfur dioxide 201 K (361°R) 263 K (473°R) 1.31
Sulfuric acid 283 K (510°R) 610 K (1098°R) 2.15
Teslium 922 K (1660°R) 2679 K (4823°R) 2.91
Thorium 2023 K (3642°R) 5061 K (9110°R) 2.50
Tin 505 K (909°R) 2875 K (5175°R) 5.69
Titanium 1941 K (3493°R) 3560 K (6408°R) 1.83
Tungsten 3695 K (6651°R) 5828 K (10490°R) 1.58
Uranium 1408 K (2534°R) 4404 K (7927°R) 3.13
Water 273 K (492°R) 373 K (672°R) 1.37
Zinc 693 K (1247°R) 1180 K (2125°R) 1.70

Relationship with liquid range Edit

Liquid ratio is somehow mathematically related to liquid range. The relationship states that if liquid ratio is greater than one, then liquid range is positive; if liquid ratio is less than one, then liquid range is negative.

Liquid range is directly proportional to phase transitions if liquid ratio is fixed according to the demonstration. If substance A has a melting point 500 K and boiling point 1000 K, corresponding to its liquid range of 500 K and liquid ratio of 2. If substance B has twice the liquid range, but with same liquid ratio, as substance A, then substance B would have melting point 1000 K and boiling point 2000 K. It is obtained simply by multiplying both melting and boiling points by substances B over A ratio in liquid ranges.

Conversely, liquid ratio is inversely proportional to phase transitions if liquid range is fixed according to the demonstration. If both substances B and C have a liquid range of 1000 K, but with different phase transitions. If substance B has a melting point 1000 K and boiling point 2000 K, then its liquid ratio is 2; if substance C has a melting point 2000 K and boiling point 3000 K, then its liquid ratio is just 1.5. It is obtained by dividing substances B over C ratios in both melting and boiling points and then multiplying the answer to liquid ratio of substance B to get liquid ratio of substance C.

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