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Symbol Ls
Atomic number 121
Pronunciation /'lav•ōiz•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Antoine Lavoisier
Name in Saurian Culeajaim (Cj)
Systematic name Unbiunium (Ubu)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Lavoisium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g1
Element below Lavoisium Ultimium
Element left of Lavoisium Galileum
Element right of Lavoisium Democritium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 446
Atomic mass 327.7145 u, 544.1826 yg
Atomic radius 188 pm, 1.88 Å
Covalent radius 187 pm, 1.87 Å
van der Waals radius 214 pm, 2.14 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 325 (121 p+, 204 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.69
Nuclear radius 8.22 fm
Half-life 107.66 y
Decay mode Alpha decay
Decay product 321Nw
Electronic properties
Electron notation 121-8-21
Electron configuration [Og] 8s2 8p1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8, 3
Oxidation states +3
(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.04
First ionization energy 555.0 kJ/mol, 5.752 eV
Electron affinity 22.2 kJ/mol, 0.230 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 327.714 g/mol
Molar volume 25.270 cm3/mol
Density 12.969 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.84 × 1021 g−1
2.38 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 347 pm, 3.47 Å
Speed of sound 1152 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
Color Apricot
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 950.13 K, 1710.23°R
676.98°C, 1250.56°F
Boiling point 1986.71 K, 3576.07°R
1713.56°C, 3116.40°F
Liquid range 1036.58 K, 1865.85°R
Liquid ratio 2.09
Triple point 950.12 K, 1710.22°R
676.97°C, 1250.55°F
@ 394.65 mPa, 0.0029601 torr
Critical point 3470.60 K, 6247.08°R
3197.45°C, 5787.41°F
@ 13.2523 MPa, 130.791 atm
Heat of fusion 8.396 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 171.563 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.04344 J/(g•K), 0.07819 J/(g•°R)
14.236 J/(mol•K), 25.624 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 8.49 × 10−24
Absolute: 2.84 × 1029 kg
By atom 6.80 × 10−25

Lavoisium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Ls and atomic number 121. Lavoisium was named in honor of Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794), who redefined the concept of elements, constructed the metric system, and stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbiunium (Ubu) or simply element 121. It is notable for being the first g-block element of the periodic table, thus the first member of the namesake lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g1.

Atomic properties Edit

Since lavoisium is the first g-block element, it is expected that there should be first electron filling in the 5g orbital in the fifth shell from the nucleus and fourth from the edge of the cloud. However due to relativistic effects, the first electron is occupying in the p-orbital as if period 8 doesn't have g-block, f-block, nor d-block, like periods 2 and 3. Since the p-orbital is in the same shell as its filled s-orbital, there are three electrons in the outermost shell. The electrons make up only 0.02% the mass of the atom, with the rest is found in its center comprising of 325 nucleons (121 protons, 204 neutrons).

The atom masses 327.7 amu. Its atomic radius, the distance between center of nucleus and outermost shell, is 1.88 Å (188 pm). But if atom is a hard sphere, which is not of course, it would have radius of 2.14 Å (214 pm). Its nucleus makes up only a tiny portion of the atom with a radius of 8.22 fm.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, lavoisium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 325Ls with a half-life of 107⅔ years. It alpha decays to 321Nw. Another interesting isotope is 326Ls, whose alpha decay half-life is 516 months. 321Ls has a half-life of 33.3 days, beta plus decaying to 321G as well as alpha decaying to 317Nw.

Lavoisium has several isomers, the longest of which is 327m1Ls, whose half-life is 9.1 minutes. 327m1Ls is the only isomer with half-life at least one minute as the second longest is 58 seconds for 323m2Ls.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Since there are three outermost electrons, lavoisium's most stable oxistate is +3, meaning it can most easily give up all three electrons from its outermost orbital when bonding trivalently to other element and forms Ls3+ ions most easily in aqueous solutions in various colors depending on solvent. Lavoisium would resemble chemical properties with boron group elements due to an electron in the p-orbital, but due to its lower electronegativity and ionization energies, lavoisium is reactive. As a result, lavoisium behaves more like an alkali metal than a boron member. This element would tarnish in the air quickly to form an oxide (Ls2O3), reacts with water to form a strong base, Ls(OH)3, and as well as acids and salts.

There are wide variety of lavoisium compounds. Lavoisium oxide (Ls2O3) is a white solid formed when it burns in the pure oxygen atmosphere, emitting a yellow flame. Lavoisium hydroxide (Ls(OH)3) is a yellow powder formed when metal reacts vigorously with water. Lavoisium sulfide (Ls2S3) is a purplish pink solid when lavoisium is bonded with sulfur at 200°C. The metal reacts most vigorously with the most reactive family of nonmetals, halogens. Examples of halides are lavoisium fluoride (LsF3) which is a crimson crystals, and lavoisium chloride (LsCl3) which is a pale yellow crystals. Examples of lavoisium salts are lavoisium sulfate (Ls2(SO4)3), a white powder, lavoisium carbonate (Ls2(CO3)3), a green powder, and lavoisium nitrate (Ls(NO3)3), a white powder. Lavoisium reacts vigorously with phosphorus even at room temperature to form lavoisium phosphide (LsP), which is a bluish green solid with the density of 3.48 g/cm3. However, lavoisium does not react with nitrogen at ordinary conditions, an element right above phosphorus on the periodic table. Heat is required for metal to react with nitrogen to form lavoisium nitride (LsN), which is purple solid with the melting point of 308°C.

Physical properties Edit

Unlike most metals, like gold, lavoisium is not silvery, but a pinkish peach (apricot) metal, due to certain exchange of energies between split 7p orbitals, full 8s orbital, and first electron in the 8p orbital. The electrons excite energies mostly at red, orange, and yellow regions of the visible spectrum while sometimes exciting at green region. Its density is approaching 13 g/cm3 and its molar volume is 25 cm3/mol. It forms face-centered cubic crystal structure and converts to base-centered monoclinic upon heating to 482°C. At room temperature, lavoisium atoms are separated by an average of 3.47 Å (347 pm) and there are 24 sextillion (2.4 × 1022) atoms in a cube measuring one centimeter across.

Like most metals, lavoisium is solid at room temperature with the melting point of 677°C and boiling point 1714°C. The melting point is the minimum temperature of being a liquid while the boiling point is the maximum temperature of being a liquid. Triple point is a point on the phase diagram in which temperature and pressure are just right which the metal is allowed to exist in all three phases. For lavoisium, it is 677°C and 395 mPa. Critical point is the minimum temperature and pressure where liquid and gas no longer exist separately, but instead it exists as a supercritical fluid, exhibiting properties of both liquid and gas. For lavoisium, it is 3197°C and 13 MPa (131 atm).

Occurrence Edit

It is certain that lavoisium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. This element can only be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be produced artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial lavoisium more abundant than natural lavoisium in the universe. An estimated abundance of lavoisium in the universe by mass is 8.49 × 10−24, which amounts to 2.84 × 1029 kilograms or a little greater than the mass of Proxima Centauri worth of this element.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of lavoisium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 325Ls.

Bi + 88
Sr + 28 1
n → 325
Th + 69
Ga + 24 1
n → 325
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Tn Og
8 Nw G * Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch A Ed Ab Bu

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