|Name in Saurian|| Bofcohaim (Bf)|
|Systematic name|| Unhextrium (Uht)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Roentgenium (111Rg)|
|Previous element||Madelungium (162Ma)|
|Next element||Gibbium (164Gb)|
|Atomic mass||470.9096 u, 781.9637 yg|
|Atomic radius||104 pm, 1.04 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||165 pm, 1.65 Å|
|Nucleons||467 (163 p+, 304 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||9.27 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g18 6f14 7d9 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 17, 4
|Oxidation states|| −1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7|
(mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||616.5 kJ/mol, 6.389 eV|
|Electron affinity||87.4 kJ/mol, 0.906 eV|
|Covalent radius||123 pm, 1.23 Å|
|Molar mass||470.910 g/mol|
|Molar volume||10.059 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||5.99 × 1022 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||256 pm, 2.56 Å|
|Speed of sound||3280 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Simple hexagonal|
|Melting point|| 1580.25 K, 1307.10°C|
|Boiling point|| 3365.78 K, 3092.63°C|
|Liquid range||1785.53 K/°C, 3213.95°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 1580.25 K, 1307.10°C|
@ 1.4169 Pa, 0.010628 torr
|Critical point|| 8528.01 K, 8254.86°C|
@ 32.7292 MPa, 323.013 atm
|Heat of fusion||15.308 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||262.246 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05491 J/g/K, 0.09884 J/g/°R|
25.858 J/mol/K, 46.544 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 8.88 × 10−42|
Absolute: 2.98 × 1011 kg
Keplerium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Kp and atomic number 163. Keplerium was named in honor of Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), who developed laws of planetary motion. This element is known in scientific literature as unhextrium (Uht), dvi-gold, or simply element 163. Keplerium is the heaviest member of the copper family (below copper, silver, gold, and roentgenium) and is the ninth member of the vanthoffide series; this element is located in periodic table coordinate 7d9.
As it is common for period 8 elements and two others in the copper family, keplerium appears as a vivid color. For this metal, it is orange, due to the same reason why gold (also in the copper family) is yellow. The quantum effects caused by high electromagnetic forces between the electrons in different orbitals oscillate or exchange energies at specified regions of the visible spectrum. For keplerium, electrons oscillate in the orange region of the spectrum while gold electrons oscillate in the yellow region, corresponding to their colors. If we remove yellow (gold) from orange (keplerium), then we would end up with red. For this reason, keplerium can practically be called "red gold," although it is also a term for a gold-copper alloy.
Red gold is 21⁄2 times denser than gold, 46.8 g/cm3 vs. 19.3 g/cm3. The molar mass of keplerium is greater by about the same degree as density, 470.91 grams vs. 198.64 grams. Same factors between density and molar mass results in molar volumes similar between orange and yellow metals, 10.1 cc vs. 10.3 cc. Keplerium atoms arrange to form hexagonal crystals, like gold. The average separation between atoms is 2.56 angstroms, almost identical to gold (2.58 angstroms). In fact, keplerium has the smallest atomic separation, as well as most atoms in one cc (59.9 sextillion) of any transmoscovium element.
The melting point of red gold is a little higher than gold, 2844°R vs. 2407°R, while the boiling point is also a little higher than gold, 6058°R vs. 5632°R. Similar comparisons of melting and boiling points between red gold and gold results in similar liquid ratios between this and gold.
Keplerium has the atomic mass 470.91 daltons, identical to the value of molar mass but in different magnitude. The atom has two times more mass than einsteinium and three times more mass than thulium. About 99.98% of its mass make up the nucleus, even though it is more than four magnitudes smaller than the atom itself. There are 467 particles that make up the nucleus, 74.1% of all the particles that make up the atom. That's because the nucleus contains lot more particles in the same volume of space as electrons surrounding the nucleus.
Spin-orbit coupling transfers an electron from the 9s orbital back to the 7d orbital which the number of shells falls back down to eight and the electron configuration now agrees with the periodic table.
Keplerium, like every other elements heavier than lead, has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 467Kp with a fission half-life of 34⅔ milliseconds. During fission, the element usually splits into three lighter nuclei and rarely into two nuclei according to the following examples.
The longest meta state has a half-life similar to the most stable ground state isotope –– 29.1 milliseconds for 469m2Kp.
Keplerium is assumed to have chemical properties similar to other copper family members such as gold. Since heavier members are less reactive than lighter members, then according to periodic trend, keplerium should be almost inert, while three lighter cogeners, silver, gold, and roentgenium, are noble metals. But relativistic effects may make keplerium considerably more chemically active. It has an electronegativity of 1.71 and its first ionization energy is 6.39 eV, telling that keplerium is moderately reactive. Due to its reactivity, keplerium would be placed above copper in the periodic table of chemical reactivities. The most stable oxidation state is +5, although there are less stable states from in odd numbers from −1 to +7. In aqueous solutions, Kp5+ is blue, Kp3+ is dark green, and Kp+ is yellow.
Although keplerium is unreactive, there are few examples of compounds, mainly in the +5 oxidation state. Keplerium pentachloride (KpCl5) is a white ionic salt which can be made by heating the metal with hydrochloric acid. Keplerium pentoxide (Kp2O5) is a dark brown powder with slight reddish tinge. Kp2O5 can be produced by heating keplerium with strong reducing oxides. Another halide is keplerium pentafluoride (KpF5), which can be formed by the direct combination of keplerium and fluorine gas. There are couple of keplerium salts: Kp2(SO4)5 and Kp2(NO4)5.
Keplerium can form compounds other than +5 state, such as keplerium suboxide (Kp2O, +1), keplerium phosphide (KpP, +3), and keplerium heptafluoride (KpF7, +7). Keplerium can form an anion kepleride (Kp−), which can combine with reactive metals such as s-block metals to form intermetallic compound. The examples are potassium kepleride (KKp) and calcium kepleride (CaKp2).
Organokeplerium compounds can be synthesized by combining keplerium or oxides with hydrocarbons, sugars or alcohols. Unlike inorganic keplerium compounds, keplerium carries mainly +1 and +3 oxistates in organic compounds. Keplerium reacts with a hydrocarbon: propane to form tripropylkeplerium ((C3H7)3Kp); with a sugar: lactose to form keplerium lactose (C12H21O11Kp), and with an alcohol: ethanol to form ethylkeplerium ((C2H5)3Kp).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that keplerium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then keplerium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of Keplerium in the universe by mass is 8.88 × 10−42, which amounts to 2.98 × 1011 kilograms or about the mass of five billion people worth of keplerium.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize keplerium. To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize ium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of keplerium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 467Kp.
Due to its similarity to gold, keplerium can be used as decorations and jewelry. It can also be used in electronics since it conducts electricity as well as gold. It is also great for forming alloys, such as with lighter cogeners copper and gold. However, due to its brief half-life of only 35 milliseconds, such applications would be impractical.