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Joulium

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Joulium (169Ju)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'jü•lē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Zeicaim (Zi)
/'zī•kām/
Systematic name Unhexennium (Uhe)
/'ün•heks•en•ē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 9
Coordinate 9p3
Above element Lazarium (115Lz)
Below element ––
Previous element Bornium (168Bn)
Next element Helmholtzium (170Hm)
Family Nitrogen family (Pnictogens)
Series Kirchoffide series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 495.1125 u, 822.1536 yg
Atomic radius 144 pm, 1.44 Å
Van der Waals radius 194 pm, 1.94 Å
Subatomic particles 660
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 491 (169 p+, 322 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.91
Nuclear radius 9.43 fm
Half-life 116.66 ns
Electronic properties
Electron notation 169-9-26
Electron configuration [Gb] 8p1 9s2 9p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4
Oxidation states +1, +3, +5, +7
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01
First ionization energy 799.6 kJ/mol, 8.287 eV
Electron affinity 124.1 kJ/mol, 1.286 eV
Covalent radius 147 pm, 1.47 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 495.113 g/mol
Molar volume 27.379 cm3/mol
Density 18.084 g/cm3
Atomic number density 2.20 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 357 pm, 3.57 Å
Speed of sound 9120 m/s
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Crystal structure Simple hexagonal
Color Brown
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 441.60K, 168.45°C
335.20°F, 794.87°R
Boiling point 923.71 K, 650.56°C
1203.01°F, 1662.68°R
Liquid range 482.11 K/°C, 867.81°F/°R
Liquid ratio 2.09
Triple point 441.51 K, 168.36°C
335.04°F, 794.71°R
@ 1.1966 Pa, 0.0089751 torr
Critical point 2392.56 K, 2119.41°C
3846.94°F, 4306.61°R
@ 42.2360 MPa, 416.838 atm
Heat of fusion 6.321 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 69.517 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.04974 J/g/K, 0.08953 J/g/°R
24.627 J/mol/K, 44.328 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 7.71 × 10−48
Absolute: 2.59 × 105 kg

Joulium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Ju and atomic number 169. Joulium was named in honor of James Prescott Joule (1818–1889), who discovered the relationship between mechanical work and heat, developed the law of conservation of energy which led to the first law of thermodynamics. This element is known in scientific literature as unhexennium (Uhe), dvi-bismuth, or simply element 169. Joulium is the heaviest pnictogen and is the third member of the kirchoffide series, placing this element at 9p3 coordinate on the periodic table.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Joulium is a soft, dense, brown metal whose density is 18.1 g/cm3. One mole of joulium takes up 27.4 centimeters of space and weighs 495.1 grams. The atoms are separated by an average distance of 357 pm and one cubic centimeter of the element contains 22 sextillion atoms. Joulium atoms arrange to form hexagonal pattern. In joulium atoms itself, the electrons between the outer orbitals oscillate differently than that of most metals, a reason why the metal is not on the grayscale, a characteristic of most metals. Instead, it oscillates at red region of the spectrum about two-thirds of the time and at green a third of the time, making the metal to appear brown.

To heat one gram of this element by 1 kelvin, 49.74 millijoules of energy would be needed, but it needs 24.63 joules of energy to heat one mole of joulium by a kelvin. The element can be melted to a dark brown liquid in the oven or on the stove, at 442 K. This element can be boiled to a black vapor using a conventional fire, at 924 K. The amount of energy needed to melt completely from solid to liquid is 6.3 kJ/mol, while the amount needed to vaporize at its boiling point is 69.5 kJ.

Joulium is diamagnetic, similar in degree to bismuth, meaning the metal repels in the presence of magnetic field just as strongly as bismuth.

Atomic Edit

Joulium has nine energy levels of electrons surrounding the nucleus. So its electron configuration is [Gb] 8p1 9s2 9p2 and electrons per shell are 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4. They show that electrons are now finishing the 8p orbital, this orbital is occupying for the first time since planckium, roughly 42 elements ago. That was right after completing the split p-orbital one beyond the now filling orbital, which is 9p1/2 orbital. The atom contains 169 electrons which all carry negative charge, and are balanced by 169 protons which all carry positive charge. The atom masses 495.1 daltons, almost all of it are found in the nucleus that make up only a tiny portion of the atom in terms of volume.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other elements heavier than lead, joulium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 491Ju with a very brief half-life of 116.6 nanoseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the following example.

491
169
Ju → 205
81
Tl + 169
69
Tm + 39
19
K + 78 1
0
n

Joulium has few metastable isomers. The longest lived are 490mJu with a half-life of 155 milliseconds, 491mJu with a half-life of 5 milliseconds, and 492mJu with a half-life of 30 microseconds. All of the remaining isomers have half-lives shorter than 491Ju, the longest-lived of such is 494mJu with a half-life of 89 nanoseconds.

Chemical Edit

The periodic table projects that joulium would have chemical properties similar to bismuth and lazarium. It has an electronegativity of 2.01, very similar to 2.02 for bismuth. The first ionization energy is also closer to the value of bismuth than lazarium. As a result, joulium behaves more like bismuth chemically than lazarium. Unlike lighter homologues, joulium most commonly displays a +5 oxidation state (pentavalent), followed by +3 (trivalent), +7 (heptavalent) and then +1 (monovalent). The higher oxistate is due to electrons in the incompleted 8p orbital. Due to its relatively high electronegativity, it does not react readily with nonmetals in ordinary conditions, not even oxygen.

Joulium, like gold, is insoluble in most mineral acids but can dissolve quite easily in aqua regia, which is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. This element can form amphoteric oxide, meaning it can behave both as an acid and as a base.

Compounds Edit

Joulium(V) oxide (Ju2O5) is a crystalline solid formed when joulium is heated with pure oxygen atmosphere. Jouline (JuH3) is a colorless, odorless gas. Joulium(V) sulfide (Ju2S5) is a crystalline solid similar in appearance to an oxide. Joulium halides include JuF7, JuF5, JuCl5, JuBr3, and JuI.

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that joulium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then joulium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. In the universe, only advanced technological civilizations can produce this element, but barely because it requires so much energy to produce this element, thus it is so unstable. An estimated abundance of joulium in the universe by mass is only 7.71 × 10−48, which amounts to 2.59 × 105 kilograms or about 60% the mass of International Space Station worth of joulium.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize joulium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of joulium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 491Ju.

174
70
Yb + 133
55
Cs + 102
44
Ru + 82 1
0
n → 491
169
Ju
291
112
Cn + 139
57
La + 61 1
0
n → 491
169
Ju
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed
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