|Named after||James Prescott Joule|
|Name in Saurian|| Zeicaim (Z)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexennium (Uhe)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Family||Nitrogen family (Pnictogens)|
|Element above Joulium||Moscovium|
|Element left of Joulium||Bornium|
|Element right of Joulium||Helmholtzium|
|495.1125 u, 822.1536 yg|
|Atomic radius||144 pm, 1.44 Å|
|Covalent radius||147 pm, 1.47 Å|
|van der Waals radius||194 pm, 1.94 Å|
|s||491 (169 p+, 322 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p3 9s2 9p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +3, +5, +7|
(an amphoteric oxide)
|First ionization energy||799.6 kJ/mol, 8.287 eV|
|Electron affinity||124.1 kJ/mol, 1.286 eV|
|Molar mass||495.113 g/mol|
|Molar volume||27.379 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.22 × 1021 g−1|
2.20 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||357 pm, 3.57 Å|
|Melting point|| 441.60 K, 794.87°R|
|Boiling point|| 923.71 K, 1662.68°R|
|Liquid range||482.11 , 867.81|
|Triple point|| 441.51 K, 794.71°R|
@ 1.1966 Pa, 0.0089751 torr
|Critical point|| 2392.56 K, 4306.61°R|
@ 42.2360 MPa, 416.838 atm
|Heat of fusion||6.321 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||69.517 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.04974 J/(g• ), 0.08953 J/(g• )|
24.627 J/(mol• ), 44.328 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 7.71 × 10−36|
Absolute: 2.59 × 1017 kg
|By atom||4.09 × 10−37|
Joulium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol J and atomic number 169. Joulium was named in honor of James Prescott Joule (1818–1889), who discovered the relationship between mechanical work and heat, developed the law of conservation of energy which led to the first law of thermodynamics. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexennium (Uhe), dvi-bismuth, or simply element 169. Joulium is the heaviest pnictogen and is the third member of the kirchoffide series, placing this element at 8p3 coordinate on the periodic table.
Atomic properties Edit
Joulium has nine energy levels of electrons surrounding the nucleus. So its electron configuration is [Gb] 8p1 9s2 9p2 and electrons per shell are 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4. They show that electrons are now finishing the 8p orbital, this orbital is occupying for the first time since planckium, roughly 42 elements ago. That was right after completing the split p-orbital one beyond the now filling orbital, which is 9p1/2 orbital. The atom contains 169 electrons which all carry negative charge, and are balanced by 169 protons which all carry positive charge. The atom masses 495.1 daltons, almost all of it are found in the nucleus that make up less than a trillionth of the atom itself in volume.
Like every other element heavier than lead, joulium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 491J with a very brief half-life of 16¾ microseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.
Joulium has few metastable isomers. The longest lived are 490mJ with a half-life of 155 milliseconds, 491mJ with a half-life of 5 milliseconds, and 492mJ with a half-life of 30 microseconds. All of the remaining isomers have half-lives shorter than 491J, the longest-lived of such is 494mJ with a half-life of 89 nanoseconds.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
The periodic table projects that joulium would have chemical properties similar to bismuth and moscovium. It has an electronegativity of 2.01, very similar to 2.02 for bismuth. The first ionization energy is also closer to the value of bismuth than moscovium. As a result, joulium behaves more like bismuth chemically than moscovium. Unlike lighter homologues, joulium most commonly displays a +5 oxidation state (pentavalent), followed by +3 (trivalent), +7 (heptavalent) and then +1 (monovalent). The higher oxistate is due to electrons in the incompleted 8p orbital. Due to its relatively high electronegativity, it does not react readily with nonmetals in ordinary conditions, not even oxygen.
Joulium, like gold, is insoluble in most mineral acids but can dissolve quite easily in aqua regia, which is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. This element can form amphoteric oxide, meaning it can behave both as an acid and as a base.
Joulium(V) oxide (J2O5) is a crystalline solid formed when joulium is heated with pure oxygen atmosphere. Jouline (JH3) is a colorless, odorless gas. Joulium(V) sulfide (J2S5) is a crystalline solid similar in appearance to an oxide. Joulium halides include JF7, JF5, JCl5, JBr3, and JI.
Physical properties Edit
Joulium is a soft, dense, brown metal whose density is 18.1 g/cm3. One mole of joulium takes up 27.4 cubic centimeters of space and weighs 495.1 grams. The atoms are separated by an average distance of 357 pm and one cubic centimeter of the element contains 22 sextillion atoms. Joulium atoms arrange to form hexagonal pattern. In joulium atoms itself, the electrons between the outer orbitals oscillate differently than that of most metals, a reason why the metal is not on the grayscale, a characteristic of most metals. Instead, it oscillates at red region of the spectrum about two-thirds of the time and at green a third of the time, making the metal to appear brown.
To heat one gram of this element by 1 kelvin, 49.74 millijoules of energy would be needed, but it needs 24.63 joules of energy to heat one mole of joulium by a kelvin. The element can be melted to a dark brown liquid in the oven or on the stove, at 442 K. This element can be boiled to a black vapor using a conventional fire, at 924 K. The amount of energy needed to melt completely from solid to liquid is 6.3 kJ/mol, while the amount needed to vaporize at its boiling point is 69.5 kJ.
It is almost certain that joulium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. In the universe, only advanced technological civilizations can produce this element, but barely because it requires so much energy to produce this element, thus it is so unstable. An estimated abundance of joulium in the universe by mass is only 7.71 × 10−36, which amounts to 2.59 × 1017 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of joulium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 491J.