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Symbol J
Atomic number 169
Pronunciation /'jü•lē•(y)üm/
Named after James Prescott Joule
Name in Saurian Zeicaim (Z)
Systematic name Unhexennium (Uhe)
Location on the periodic table
Group 15
Period 8
Family Nitrogen family (Pnictogens)
Series Kirchoffide series
Coordinate 8p3
Element above Joulium Moscovium
Element left of Joulium Bornium
Element right of Joulium Helmholtzium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 660
Atomic mass 495.1125 u, 822.1536 yg
Atomic radius 144 pm, 1.44 Å
Covalent radius 147 pm, 1.47 Å
van der Waals radius 194 pm, 1.94 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 491 (169 p+, 322 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.91
Nuclear radius 9.43 fm
Half-life 16.755 μs
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 169-9-26
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p3 9s2 9p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4
Oxidation states +1, +3, +5, +7
(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01
First ionization energy 799.6 kJ/mol, 8.287 eV
Electron affinity 124.1 kJ/mol, 1.286 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 495.113 g/mol
Molar volume 27.379 cm3/mol
Density 18.084 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.22 × 1021 g−1
2.20 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 357 pm, 3.57 Å
Speed of sound 9120 m/s
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Color Brown
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 441.60 K, 794.87°R
168.45°C, 335.20°F
Boiling point 923.71 K, 1662.68°R
650.56°C, 1203.01°F
Liquid range 482.11 K, 867.81°R
Liquid ratio 2.09
Triple point 441.51 K, 794.71°R
168.36°C, 335.04°F
@ 1.1966 Pa, 0.0089751 torr
Critical point 2392.56 K, 4306.61°R
2119.41°C, 3846.94°F
@ 42.2360 MPa, 416.838 atm
Heat of fusion 6.321 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 69.517 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.04974 J/(g•K), 0.08953 J/(g•°R)
24.627 J/(mol•K), 44.328 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 7.71 × 10−36
Absolute: 2.59 × 1017 kg
By atom 4.09 × 10−37

Joulium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol J and atomic number 169. Joulium was named in honor of James Prescott Joule (1818–1889), who discovered the relationship between mechanical work and heat, developed the law of conservation of energy which led to the first law of thermodynamics. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexennium (Uhe), dvi-bismuth, or simply element 169. Joulium is the heaviest pnictogen and is the third member of the kirchoffide series, placing this element at 8p3 coordinate on the periodic table.

Atomic properties Edit

Joulium has nine energy levels of electrons surrounding the nucleus. So its electron configuration is [Gb] 8p1 9s2 9p2 and electrons per shell are 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 5, 4. They show that electrons are now finishing the 8p orbital, this orbital is occupying for the first time since planckium, roughly 42 elements ago. That was right after completing the split p-orbital one beyond the now filling orbital, which is 9p1/2 orbital. The atom contains 169 electrons which all carry negative charge, and are balanced by 169 protons which all carry positive charge. The atom masses 495.1 daltons, almost all of it are found in the nucleus that make up less than a trillionth of the atom itself in volume.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, joulium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 491J with a very brief half-life of 16¾ microseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.

J → 205
Tl + 169
Tm + 39
K + 78 1

Joulium has few metastable isomers. The longest lived are 490mJ with a half-life of 155 milliseconds, 491mJ with a half-life of 5 milliseconds, and 492mJ with a half-life of 30 microseconds. All of the remaining isomers have half-lives shorter than 491J, the longest-lived of such is 494mJ with a half-life of 89 nanoseconds.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

The periodic table projects that joulium would have chemical properties similar to bismuth and moscovium. It has an electronegativity of 2.01, very similar to 2.02 for bismuth. The first ionization energy is also closer to the value of bismuth than moscovium. As a result, joulium behaves more like bismuth chemically than moscovium. Unlike lighter homologues, joulium most commonly displays a +5 oxidation state (pentavalent), followed by +3 (trivalent), +7 (heptavalent) and then +1 (monovalent). The higher oxistate is due to electrons in the incompleted 8p orbital. Due to its relatively high electronegativity, it does not react readily with nonmetals in ordinary conditions, not even oxygen.

Joulium, like gold, is insoluble in most mineral acids but can dissolve quite easily in aqua regia, which is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. This element can form amphoteric oxide, meaning it can behave both as an acid and as a base.

Joulium(V) oxide (J2O5) is a crystalline solid formed when joulium is heated with pure oxygen atmosphere. Jouline (JH3) is a colorless, odorless gas. Joulium(V) sulfide (J2S5) is a crystalline solid similar in appearance to an oxide. Joulium halides include JF7, JF5, JCl5, JBr3, and JI.

Physical properties Edit

Joulium is a soft, dense, brown metal whose density is 18.1 g/cm3. One mole of joulium takes up 27.4 cubic centimeters of space and weighs 495.1 grams. The atoms are separated by an average distance of 357 pm and one cubic centimeter of the element contains 22 sextillion atoms. Joulium atoms arrange to form hexagonal pattern. In joulium atoms itself, the electrons between the outer orbitals oscillate differently than that of most metals, a reason why the metal is not on the grayscale, a characteristic of most metals. Instead, it oscillates at red region of the spectrum about two-thirds of the time and at green a third of the time, making the metal to appear brown.

To heat one gram of this element by 1 kelvin, 49.74 millijoules of energy would be needed, but it needs 24.63 joules of energy to heat one mole of joulium by a kelvin. The element can be melted to a dark brown liquid in the oven or on the stove, at 442 K. This element can be boiled to a black vapor using a conventional fire, at 924 K. The amount of energy needed to melt completely from solid to liquid is 6.3 kJ/mol, while the amount needed to vaporize at its boiling point is 69.5 kJ.

Joulium is diamagnetic, similar in degree to bismuth, meaning the metal repels in the presence of magnetic field Jst as strongly as bismuth.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that joulium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. In the universe, only advanced technological civilizations can produce this element, but barely because it requires so much energy to produce this element, thus it is so unstable. An estimated abundance of joulium in the universe by mass is only 7.71 × 10−36, which amounts to 2.59 × 1017 kilograms.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of joulium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 491J.

Yb + 133
Cs + 102
Ru + 82 1
n → 491
Cn + 139
La + 61 1
n → 491
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Tn Og
8 Nw G * Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch A Ed Ab Bu

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