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|Name in Saurian|| Xirraim (Xr)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexhexium (Uhh)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Galilinium (120Gl)|
|Previous element||Pasturium (165Ps)|
|Next element||Kirchoffium (167Kf)|
|Family|| Helium family|
(Alkaline earth metals)
|488.0544 u, 810.4333 yg|
|Atomic radius||178 pm, 1.78 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||237 pm, 2.37 Å|
|s||484 (166 p+, 318 n0)|
|Electron configuration|| [Gb] 9s2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 4, 2
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +4|
(strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||628.6 kJ/mol, 6.515 eV|
|Electron affinity||47.2 kJ/mol, 0.489 eV|
|Covalent radius||156 pm, 1.56 Å|
|Molar mass||488.054 g/mol|
|Molar volume||43.963 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.23 × 1021 g−1|
1.37 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||418 pm, 4.18 Å|
|Crystal structure||Simple hexagonal|
|Melting point|| 1203.56 K, 2166.40°R|
|Boiling point|| 1602.65 K, 2884.77°R|
|Liquid range||399.10 , 718.37|
|Triple point|| 1203.54 K, 2166.38°R|
@ 4.6955 kPa, 3473.6 torr
|Critical point|| 3828.79 K, 6891.82°R|
@ 77.4015 MPa, 763.896 atm
|Heat of fusion||14.032 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||127.902 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.04331 J/(g• ), 0.07795 J/(g• )|
21.136 J/(mol• ), 38.044 J/(mol• )
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 1.25 × 10−42|
Absolute: 4.19 × 1010 kg
Hubbium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Hb and atomic number 166. Hubbium was named in honor of Edwin Hubble (1889–1953), who discovered that the universe goes beyond the Milky Way and observed that the universe is expanding. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexhexium (Uhh), dvi-radium, or simply element 166. Hubbium is the heaviest alkaline earth metal of the 172-element periodic table, located in the periodic table coordinate 9s2.
Hubbium's melting point is 1204 K (1707°F), which is unexpected based on the periodic trend in the alkaline earth metal column because of the absence of completed 8p orbital due to relativistic effects. Its melting point is the highest of any alkaline earth metals despite the general decreasing trend of melting points with increasing period. Its boiling point is 399 K (718°F) higher than its melting point, similar to mercury's in liquid range. Like its melting point, hubbium is the densest alkaline earth metal, whose value is 11.1 g/cm3.
Electrons between the incompleted 8p orbital and full 9s orbital would exchange energies with each other at few specified wavelengths, mainly in the yellow, orange and green regions of the spectrum from about 550 nm to about 600 nm. Oscillations at multiple wavelengths simultaneously would make the metal appear peach instead of silvery for all other alkaline earth metals.
Diamagnetism is the magnetic ordering of hubbium. The only other diamagnetic alkaline earth metal is beryllium. Diamagnetism means a property to repel magnetic field, thus causing levitation, at least to a very small degree.
Hubbium contains 166 electrons in 9 energy levels, averaging about 19 electrons per energy level. Due to extreme relativistic effectss causing smearing of the orbitals, the electrons have completed the s-orbital in the ninth and outermost shell without completing the p-orbital first. However, there are two electrons in the p-orbital that was last added 39 elements ago. The electrons are full in the p1/2 split orbital and none in the p3/2 split orbital. Electrons make up only a tiny proportion of the atom's mass as almost all of its mass are protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus around which the electrons orbit.
Like every other element heavier than lead, hubbium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 484Hb with a half-life of 95 milliseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.
Hubbium has three meta states that are more stable than the most stable ground state isotope: 481m1Hb (half-life: 5 minutes), 483m1Hb (half-life: 3 seconds), and 485m2Hb (half-life: 178 milliseconds).
Hubbium is a reactive metal and tends to give up two electrons during chemical reactions, but it can also give up four electrons because in addition to electrons in the 9s orbital, the 8p1/2 orbital can also participate in bonding due to small spacing between the 8p1/2 and 9s orbitals. Hubbium(II) has chemical properties similar to calcium, found in salts like hubbium oxide (HbO) and hubbium carbonate (HbCO3), whereas hubbium(IV) would behave like tin or lead. This element forms solution which behave like calcium in its +2 state; its hydroxide (Hb(OH)2) is homologous to Ca(OH)2.
Hubbium can form compound anions such as HbF2−
8, and HbCS4−
Hubbium can form numerous compounds. Hubbium(II) oxide (HbO) or hubbium(IV) oxide (HbO2) form when the metal exposes to air for a short time. Hubbium(II) sulfide (HbS) is a purple powder. Hubbium(II) chloride (HbCl2) forms when hubbium(II) perchlorate (Hb(ClO4)2) decomposes by heat, liberating oxygen in the process. HbCl2 can then react with chlorine gas to give HbCl4. Hubbium(II) bromide is formed when HbS reacts with silver(II) bromide (AgBr2).
- HbS + AgBr2 → HbBr2 + AgS
The other bromide, HbBr4, is unstable unlike HbCl4. HbI2 would be the only iodide of hubbium.
Hubbium(II) carbonate (HbCO3), hubbium(II) sulfate (HbSO4), and hubbium(II) phosphate (Hb3(PO4)2) formed when hubbium reacts with carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid, respectively. Hubbium(II) hydride (HbH2) is formed when hubbium reacts directly with hydrogen gas or by extracting hydrogen from steam in the presence of carbon.
Hubbocene (C8H8Hb) is one example of organohubbium.
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that hubbium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then hubbium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of hubbium in the universe by mass is 1.25 × 10−42, which amounts to 4.19 × 1010 kilograms or about the mass of seven Great Pyramid of Giza worth of hubbium.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize hubbium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of hubbium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 484Hb.