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Hertzium

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Hertzium (151Hr)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'hər•tzē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Xohkqaim (Xq)
/'zōh•kwām/
Systematic name Unpentunium (Upu)
/'ün•pent•ün•ē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 6f11
Above element Einsteinium (99Es)
Below element ––
Previous element Schrodium (150So)
Next element Wittenium (152Wt)
Family Holmium family
Series Dumaside series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 428.5558 u, 711.6335 yg
Atomic radius 128 pm, 1.28 Å
Van der Waals radius 192 pm, 1.92 Å
Subatomic particles 576
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 425 (151 p+, 274 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.81
Nuclear radius 8.99 fm
Half-life 108.11 μs
Electronic properties
Electron notation 151-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f8 7d3 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 26, 11, 4
Oxidation states 0, +1
(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.41
First ionization energy 989.6 kJ/mol, 10.256 eV
Electron affinity 33.6 kJ/mol, 0.348 eV
Covalent radius 136 pm, 1.36 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 428.556 g/mol
Molar volume 96.948 cm3/mol
Density 4.420 g/cm3
Atomic number density 6.21 × 1021 cm−3
Average atomic separation 544 pm, 5.44 Å
Speed of sound 3544 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Centered tetragonal
Color Turquoish gray
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 1308.35 K, 1035.20°C
1895.35°F, 2355.02°R
Boiling point 2920.16 K, 2647.01°C
4796.63°F, 5256.30°R
Liquid range 1611.82 K/°C, 2901.27°F/°R
Liquid ratio 2.23
Triple point 1308.13 K, 1034.98°C
1894.96°F, 2354.63°R
@ 1.9950 mPa, 1.4964 × 10−5 torr
Critical point 8655.29 K, 8382.14°C
15119.86°F, 15579.53°R
@ 490.8285 MPa, 4844.116 atm
Heat of fusion 13.892 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 302.251 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05839 J/g/K, 0.10509 J/g/°R
25.022 J/mol/K, 45.039 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 3.47 × 10−40
Absolute: 1.16 × 1013 kg

Hertzium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Hr and atomic number 151. Hertzium was named in honor of Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894), who discovered the radio waves and its frequency. He also established the photoelectric effect. This element is known in scientific literature as unpentunium (Upu), eka-einsteinium, or simply element 151. Hertzium is the eleventh member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below holmium and einsteinium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 6f11.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Hertzium is a turquoish gray metal with a density of 4.42 g/cm3. The atoms are separated by an average of 5.44 Å (544 pm). Hertzium atoms form tetrahedral crystal lattice and the sound travels at 3544 m/s through it.

Hertzium melts at 1035°C (1308 K), meaning upon heating to that temperature it becomes a liquid, and boils at 2647°C (2920 K), meaning it becomes gaseous upon heating to that temperature. The amount of energy needed to liquify one mole of this element is 14 kJ while it requires 302 kJ to vaporize. The amount of energy needed to heat one mole of hertzium by 1°C is 25 joules.

Atomic Edit

Hertzium atom is comprised of 576 subatomic particles, 425 of these make up the nucleus, while the remain 151 are found surrounding the nucleus. The atomic mass is 42859 daltons, 99.98% of its mass is found in the nucleus. Its radius is 128 picometers with eight shells.

The electron configuration is inconsistent with what the periodic table would tell, the f-orbital contains three missing electrons to the d-orbital.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other trans-lead elements, hertzium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 425Hr with a very brief half-life of 108 microseconds, undergoing spontaneous fission according to the following examples.

425
151
Hr → 243
95
Am + 137
56
Ba + 45 1
0
n
425
151
Hr → 210
85
At + 145
61
Pm + 11
5
B + 59 1
0
n

In addition to ground state isotopes, hertzium has metastable isomers, such as 425mHr, whose half-life is a thousand times longer than corresponding ground state, at 109 milliseconds.

Chemical Edit

The chemical properties of hertzium are much different than lighter homologue einsteinium due to electrons in the bound 8s and 8p1/2 orbital. Due to its very high bonding energy of electrons, +1 is the only stable oxidation state of hertzium. Its first ionization energy is 10.3 eV, compared to just 6.4 eV for einsteinium, which corresponds that hertzium is much less reactive than einsteinium. Hertzium's atomic radius is only 128 pm compared to 203 pm for lighter cogener. Hertzium's small atom causes electrons to have greater attractive forces to the nucleus and thus requires more energy to overcome attractive forces, resulting in higher ionization energies and decrease in chemical reactivities.

Hertzium is insoluble in water, alkalis, and acids except for hydrohalic acids, sulfuric acid, and aqua regia, though to slight extant. Hr+ is dark red in hydrofluoric acid, light orange in hydrochloric acid, violet in hydrobromic acid, and teal in hydroiodic acid. This ion is colorless when dissolved in sulfuric acid and aqua regia.

Compounds Edit

The examples of hertzium halides are HrF, HrCl, HrBr, and HrI, which are all ionic salts like the table salt (NaCl). Hertzium don't just form halides, but can also form compounds with other nonmetals such as Hr2O, Hr2S, and Hr2SO4. It can even form organohertzium compounds such as dihertzium decacarbonyl (Hr2(CO)10), obtained by reacting hertzium oxide with carbon monoxide.

Hr2O + 11 CO → Hr2(CO)10 + CO2

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that hertzium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then hertzium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of hertzium in the universe by mass is 3.47 × 10−40, which amounts to 1.16 × 1013 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize hertzium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of hertzium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 440Hr.

232
90
Th + 145
61
Pm + 48 1
0
n → 425
151
Hr
298
114
Fl + 85
37
Rb + 18 1
0
n → 425
151
Hr
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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