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Heisenbergium
Symbol Hb
Atomic number 145
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'hī•zin•bərsh•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Werner Heisenberg
Name in Saurian Xoajodrohwaim (Xr)
/'zō•ho•drō•wām/
Systematic name Unquadpentium (Uqp)
/'ün•kwod•pen•tē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Praseodymium family
Series Dumaside series
Coordinate 6f3
Element above Heisenbergium Protactinium
Element left of Heisenbergium Scheelium
Element right of Heisenbergium Davyum
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 543
Atomic mass 401.3269 u, 666.4189 yg
Atomic radius 137 pm, 1.37 Å
Covalent radius 146 pm, 1.46 Å
van der Waals radius 176 pm, 1.76 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 398 (145 p+, 253 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.74
Nuclear radius 8.79 fm
Half-life 22.488 μs
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 145-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f3 7d2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 21, 10, 4
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.78
First ionization energy 743.2 kJ/mol, 7.702 eV
Electron affinity 49.5 kJ/mol, 0.513 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 401.327 g/mol
Molar volume 42.784 cm3/mol
Density 9.380 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.50 × 1021 g−1
1.41 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 414 pm, 4.14 Å
Speed of sound 3510 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
Color Gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 1122.20 K, 2019.95°R
849.05°C, 1560.28°F
Boiling point 3585.21 K, 6453.38°R
3312.06°C, 5993.71°F
Liquid range 2463.01 K, 4433.43°R
Liquid ratio 3.19
Triple point 1122.20 K, 2019.97°R
849.05°C, 1560.30°F
@ 24.123 mPa, 1.8094 × 10−4 torr
Critical point 8145.73 K, 14662.31°R
7872.58°C, 14202.64°F
@ 7.5816 MPa, 74.825 atm
Heat of fusion 11.599 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 328.957 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05570 J/(g•K), 0.10026 J/(g•°R)
22.354 J/(mol•K), 40.236 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 4.95 × 10−34
Absolute: 1.66 × 1019 kg
By atom 3.24 × 10−35

Heisenbergium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Hb and atomic number 145. Heisenbergium was named in honor of Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), who asserted the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadpentium (Uqp), eka-protactinium, or simply element 145. Heisenbergium is the third member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below praseodymium and protactinium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f3.

Atomic properties Edit

Heisenbergium has three out of 14 electrons in the 6f orbital, hence its location on the periodic table, as well as two in the 7d orbital. There are 145 electrons overall in 22 orbitals in 8 shells. All 145 of these negatively charged particles are balanced by the same number of positively charge particles, protons, found in the nucleus that make up a tiny portion of the atom along with neutrons.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, heisenbergium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 398Hb with a very brief fission half-life (t½) of 22.5 microseconds like the example.

398
145
Hb → 205
81
Tl + 158
64
Gd + 35 1
0
n

Heisenbergium has meta states with much longer lifetime than the most stable ground state isotope. Examples are 395mHb (t½ = 68.74 minutes), 391mHb (t½ = 3.02 hours), 400mHb (t½ = 2.33 minutes), 398mHb (t½ = 4.50 seconds), and 397mHb (t½ = 3.31 seconds).

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Chemically, heisenbergium should display eka-protactinium properties, but its properties is actually different from protactinium that it is less reactive. Its ionization energy is 7.7 eV while protactinium is 5.9. The stable oxidation states of heisenbergium are +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8 with +6 being most common.

Due to its chemical inactivity, heisenbergium in the elemental form is stable in the air and water, although it is attacked by acids.

At ordinary conditions, it does not react with oxygen in the air but it can react at higher temperatures to form a black oxide –– HbO3. Another oxide is HbO2, which can be reduced by dichlorine monoxide. The metal dissolves and slowly gets attacked by hydrochloric acid to form heisenbergium(VIII) chloride (HbCl8), a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 1089°C (1992°F).

This element can form organoheisenbergium, or organic compounds of heisenbergium. An example of the organic compound is heisenbergose (C6H6O6Hb6), which the element carries a +1 oxistate.

Physical properties Edit

Like many metals, heisenbergium is lustrous gray, but brittle, meaning a blow can cause metal to crumble. Its density is 9.38 g/cm3 and sound travels through this substance at 3510 m/s. Heisenbergium has a wide liquid range, melting at 1560°F and boiling at 5994°F, meaning this element can be melted in the cool flame and boiled on some red stars.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that heisenbergium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of heisenbergium in the universe by mass is 4.95 × 10−34, which amounts to 1.66 × 1019 kilograms.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of heisenbergium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 398Hb.

210
85
At + 142
60
Nd + 46 1
0
n → 398
145
Hb
258
101
Md + 102
44
Ru + 38 1
0
n → 398
145
Hb
Elements
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Tn Og
8 Nw G * Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch A Ed Ab Bu

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