|Named after||Werner Heisenberg|
|Name in Saurian|| Xoajodrohwaim (Xr)|
|Systematic name|| Unquadpentium (Uqp)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Heisenbergium||Protactinium|
|Element left of Heisenbergium||Scheelium|
|Element right of Heisenbergium||Davyum|
|401.3269 u, 666.4189 yg|
|Atomic radius||137 pm, 1.37 Å|
|Covalent radius||146 pm, 1.46 Å|
|van der Waals radius||176 pm, 1.76 Å|
|s||398 (145 p+, 253 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f3 7d2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 21, 10, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8|
(a mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||743.2 kJ/mol, 7.702 eV|
|Electron affinity||49.5 kJ/mol, 0.513 eV|
|Molar mass||401.327 g/mol|
|Molar volume||42.784 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.50 × 1021 g−1|
1.41 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||414 pm, 4.14 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 1122.20 K, 2019.95°R|
|Boiling point|| 3585.21 K, 6453.38°R|
|Liquid range||2463.01 , 4433.43|
|Triple point|| 1122.20 K, 2019.97°R|
@ 24.123 mPa, 1.8094 × 10−4 torr
|Critical point|| 8145.73 K, 14662.31°R|
@ 7.5816 MPa, 74.825 atm
|Heat of fusion||11.599 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||328.957 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05570 J/(g• ), 0.10026 J/(g• )|
22.354 J/(mol• ), 40.236 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 4.95 × 10−34|
Absolute: 1.66 × 1019 kg
|By atom||3.24 × 10−35|
Heisenbergium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Hb and atomic number 145. Heisenbergium was named in honor of Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), who asserted the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadpentium (Uqp), eka-protactinium, or simply element 145. Heisenbergium is the third member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below praseodymium and protactinium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f3.
Atomic properties Edit
Heisenbergium has three out of 14 electrons in the 6f orbital, hence its location on the periodic table, as well as two in the 7d orbital. There are 145 electrons overall in 22 orbitals in 8 shells. All 145 of these negatively charged particles are balanced by the same number of positively charge particles, protons, found in the nucleus that make up a tiny portion of the atom along with neutrons.
Heisenbergium has meta states with much longer lifetime than the most stable ground state isotope. Examples are 395mHb (t½ = 68.74 minutes), 391mHb (t½ = 3.02 hours), 400mHb (t½ = 2.33 minutes), 398mHb (t½ = 4.50 seconds), and 397mHb (t½ = 3.31 seconds).
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Chemically, heisenbergium should display eka-protactinium properties, but its properties is actually different from protactinium that it is less reactive. Its ionization energy is 7.7 eV while protactinium is 5.9. The stable oxidation states of heisenbergium are +1, +2, +3, +4, +6, +8 with +6 being most common.
Due to its chemical inactivity, heisenbergium in the elemental form is stable in the air and water, although it is attacked by acids.
At ordinary conditions, it does not react with oxygen in the air but it can react at higher temperatures to form a black oxide –– HbO3. Another oxide is HbO2, which can be reduced by dichlorine monoxide. The metal dissolves and slowly gets attacked by hydrochloric acid to form heisenbergium(VIII) chloride (HbCl8), a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 1089°C (1992°F).
This element can form organoheisenbergium, or organic compounds of heisenbergium. An example of the organic compound is heisenbergose (C6H6O6Hb6), which the element carries a +1 oxistate.
Physical properties Edit
Like many metals, heisenbergium is lustrous gray, but brittle, meaning a blow can cause metal to crumble. Its density is 9.38 g/cm3 and sound travels through this substance at 3510 m/s. Heisenbergium has a wide liquid range, melting at 1560°F and boiling at 5994°F, meaning this element can be melted in the cool flame and boiled on some red stars.
It is almost certain that heisenbergium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of heisenbergium in the universe by mass is 4.95 × 10−34, which amounts to 1.66 × 1019 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of heisenbergium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 398Hb.