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Heisenbergium (145Hi)
Pronunciation /'hī•zin•bərsh•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Xoajodrohwaim (Xa)
Systematic name Unquadpentium (Uqp)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 6f5
Above element Neptunium (93Np)
Below element ––
Previous element Scheelium (144Sh)
Next element Davyum (146Da)
Family Promethium family
Series Dumaside series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 401.3269 u, 666.4189 yg
Atomic radius 137 pm, 1.37 Å
Van der Waals radius 176 pm, 1.76 Å
Subatomic particles 543
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 398 (145 p+, 253 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.74
Nuclear radius 8.79 fm
Half-life 22.488 ms
Electronic properties
Electron notation 145-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f3 7d2 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 21, 10, 4
Oxidation states 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.78
First ionization energy 743.2 kJ/mol, 7.702 eV
Electron affinity 49.5 kJ/mol, 0.513 eV
Covalent radius 146 pm, 1.46 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 401.327 g/mol
Molar volume 42.784 cm3/mol
Density 9.380 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.50 × 1021 g−1
1.41 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 414 pm, 4.14 Å
Speed of sound 3510 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Face centered cubic
Color Gray
Phase Solid
Melting point 1122.20 K, 2019.95°R
849.05°C, 1560.28°F
Boiling point 3585.21 K, 6453.38°R
3312.06°C, 5993.71°F
Liquid range 2463.01 K, 4433.43°R
Liquid ratio 3.19
Triple point 1122.20 K, 2019.97°R
849.05°C, 1560.30°F
@ 24.123 mPa, 1.8094 × 10−4 torr
Critical point 8145.73 K, 14662.31°R
7872.58°C, 14202.64°F
@ 7.5816 MPa, 74.825 atm
Heat of fusion 11.599 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 328.957 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05570 J/(g•K), 0.10026 J/(g•°R)
22.354 J/(mol•K), 40.236 J/(mol•°R)
Universe (by mass) Relative: 4.95 × 10−37
Absolute: 1.66 × 1016 kg

Heisenbergium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Hi and atomic number 145. Heisenbergium was named in honor of Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), who asserted the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadpentium (Uqp), eka-neptunium, or simply element 145. Heisenbergium is the fifth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below promethium and neptunium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f5.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Like many metals, heisenbergium is lustrous gray, but brittle, meaning a blow can cause metal to crumble. Its density is 9.38 g/cm3 and sound travels through this substance at 3510 m/s. Heisenbergium has a wide liquid range, melting at 1560°F and boiling at 5994°F, meaning this element can be melted in the cool flame and boiled on some red stars.

Atomic Edit

Heisenbergium has three out of 14 electrons in the 6f orbital, but according to the periodic table, there should be five. Due to spin-orbit coupling, the two missing 6f orbital electrons are in the 7d orbital. There are 145 electrons overall in 22 orbitals in 8 shells. All 145 of these negatively charged particles are balanced by the same number of positively charge particles, protons, found in the nucleus that make up a tiny portion of the atom along with neutrons.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, heisenbergium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 398Hi with a brief fission half-life (t½) of 22.5 milliseconds like the example.

Hi → 205
Tl + 158
Gd + 35 1

Heisenbergium has meta states with much longer lifetime than the most stable ground state isotope. Examples are 395mHi (t½ = 68.74 days), 391mHi (t½ = 3.02 hours), 400mHi (t½ = 2.33 minutes), 398mHi (t½ = 4.50 seconds), and 397mHi (t½ = 3.31 seconds).

Chemical Edit

Chemically, heisenbergium should display eka-neptunium properties, but its properties is actually different from neptunium that it is less reactive and exhibit lower oxidation states. It is caused by higher ionization energies due to lavoiside contraction and relativistic effects. Its ionization energy is 7.7 eV while neptunium is 6.3. Heisenbergium takes on the stable oxidation states from +1 to +4 with +1 and +4 being common.

Due to its chemical inactivity, heisenbergium in the elemental form is stable in the air and water, although it is attacked by acids.

Compounds Edit

At ordinary conditions, it does not react with oxygen in the air but it can react at higher temperatures to form a black oxide –– HiO2. Another oxide is Hi2O, which can be reduced by dichlorine monoxide. The metal dissolves and slowly gets attacked by hydrochloric acid to form heisenbergium(IV) chloride (HiCl4), a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 1089°C (1992°F).

This element can form organoheisenbergium, or organic compounds of heisenbergium. Like inorganic compounds, +1 and +4 oxistates are most common in organic compounds of heisenbergium. An example is heisenbose (C6H6O6Hi6).

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that heisenbergium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then heisenbergium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of heisenbergium in the universe by mass is 4.95 × 10−37, which amounts to 1.66 × 1016 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize heisenbergium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of heisenbergium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 398Hi.

At + 142
Nd + 46 1
n → 398
Md + 102
Ru + 38 1
n → 398
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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