|Named after||Josiah Willard Gibbs|
|Name in Saurian|| Warrjaim (Wr)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexquadium (Uhq)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Gibbsium||Darmstadtium|
|Element left of Gibbsium||Keplerium|
|Element right of Gibbsium||Becquerelium|
|478.9781 u, 795.3618 yg|
|Atomic radius||111 pm, 1.11 Å|
|Covalent radius||122 pm, 1.22 Å|
|van der Waals radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|s||475 (164 p+, 311 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 4|
|Oxidation states|| 0, +2, +4, +6|
(a mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||684.1 kJ/mol, 7.090 eV|
|Electron affinity||18.6 kJ/mol, 0.193 eV|
|Molar mass||478.978 g/mol|
|Molar volume||10.455 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.26 × 1021 g−1|
5.76 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||259 pm, 2.59 Å|
|Melting point|| 1007.67 K, 1813.80°R|
|Boiling point|| 1668.56 K, 3003.41°R|
|Liquid range||660.89 , 1189.60|
|Triple point|| 1007.63 K, 1813.74°R|
@ 1.8744 Pa, 0.014059 torr
|Critical point|| 4875.47 K, 8775.84°R|
@ 401.9154 MPa, 3966.609 atm
|Heat of fusion||9.116 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||176.136 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05757 J/(g• ), 0.10363 J/(g• )|
27.577 J/(mol• ), 49.638 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.07 × 10−29|
Absolute: 6.93 × 1023 kg
|By atom||1.13 × 10−30|
Gibbsium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Gb and atomic number 164. Gibbsium was named in honor of Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), who pioneered chemical thermodynamics and one of the founders of statistical mechanics. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexquadium (Uhq), dvi-platinum, or simply element 164. Gibbsium is the heaviest member of the nickel family (below nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium) and is the eighth member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d8.
Atomic properties Edit
Hence its atomic number, gibbsium contains 164 protons, in addition to those that makeup the nucleus, there are also 311 neutrons that help stabilize the nucleus against the repulsive forces of protons. Nuclear ratio, which is the neutron/proton ratio, is 1.90. Since protons carry positive charge, the atom should have a charge of +164, but actually it is neutral because it contains 164 electrons, which carry negative charge of same degree as protons. This element has completed a 7d orbital, even though it is the third-to-last element of the d-block series on the periodic table; however it additionally contains two electrons in the 8p orbital due to relativistic effects.
Like every other element heavier than lead, gibbsium has no stable isotopes. The element is at the center of the “second island of stability". The longest-lived isotope is 475Gb with a half-life of roughly 6½ hours, which is unusually long for elements as heavy as this element. Madelungium is at its peak of the "second island of stability." Despite this longevity, it undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into usually three (rarely two) lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.
The second longest lived isotope, 479Gb, has a half-life of just 47 seconds. The third longest lived isotope, 477Gb, has a half-life of 17 seconds. The fourth longest lived isotope, 473Gb, has a half-life of 9 seconds. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 2 seconds while majority of these have half-lives of less than 80 milliseconds. Also there are few metastable isomers, couple are long-lived, the most stable being 475m1Gb with a half-life of nearly four months and 471m2Gb with a half-life of more than a month.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Gibbsium has four possible oxidation states: 0, +2, +4 and +6 with +6 the most dominant. With the electronegativity of 1.73 and first ionization energy 7.09 eV, gibbsium shows some chemical activities like zinc and mercury. In aqueous solutions, Gb2+ (light red) is the most stable cation, followed by Gb4+ (light blue) and Gb6+ (peach).
Gibbsium(IV) oxide (GbO2) is an olive green powder in contrast to gibbsium(VI) oxide (GbO3) being a dark purple powder. Gibbsium(IV) sulfide (GbS2) is a sky blue amorphous solid while gibbsium(VI) sulfide (GbS3) is a pink amorphous solid. Gibbsium can readily react with halogens such as fluorine, chlorine and bromine. Examples of gibbsium halides are GbF4, GbF6, GbCl4, and GbBr2. Gibbsium(II) bromate (Gb(BrO3)2) forms when bromide and oxide react together with excess oxygen at high temperature.
- GbO2 + GbBr4 + 5 O2 → 2 Gb(BrO3)2
Gibbsium(II) fulminate (Gb(CNO)2) is a brownish red powder when a gibbsium oxide combines with cyanogen. The fulminate can react with excess hydrogen sulfide to form gibbsium thiocyanate (Gb(SCN)2), which is a pale pink powder.
- Gb(CNO)2 + 2 H2S → Gb(SCN)2 + 2 H2O
Gibbsium thiocyanate can be decomposed to gibbsium cyanide (Gb(CN)2) and is then treated with dilute sulfuric acid to form gibbsium dithiazyl (Gb(SN)2) and an exotic acid called percarbonic acid.
- Gb(CN)2 + 2 H2SO4 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 H2CO4
Alternatively, Gb(CN)2 can be treated with sulfur dioxide to form a dark brown powder Gb(SN)2.
- Gb(CN)2 + 2 SO2 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 CO2
- Gb(SN)2 + S4N4 → Gb(SN)4 + S2N2
Gibbsium can form coordination complexes in addition to Gb(SN)2 and Gb(SN)4 by bonding to ligands in the 0 oxistate, like Gb(CO)4 and Gb(PF3)4. Gb(CO)4 is an organogibbsium compound along with examples like tetramethyl orthogibbate (GbC4H12O4).
Physical properties Edit
Gibbsium is a soft, brownish gray metal with a density of 45.8 g/cm3, 1.3 times higher than the lighter cogener darmstadtium (34.8 g/cm3). Unlike other members of the group, gibbsium forms hexagonal crystal lattices. Gibbsium has poor conductor of heat but fair conductor of electricity.
Due to its similar electron configurations as group 12 elements even though this element is a group 10 member, the physical properties of gibbsium would resemble group 12 elements more than to group 10 elements. For lighter group 12 elements, melting and boiling points decrease with increasing atomic numbers, but due to the element's ability to covalently bond with each other due to hybridization of electrons in the 8p1/2 orbital, it actually has the highest melting and boiling points of any other zinc family elements. The melting point of 735°C is in stark comparison with mercury (−39°C) and copernicium (−112°C). As a result, gibbsium is solid like family members zinc and cadmium. Due to their phase points, gibbsium requires more energy to melt and boil this element than any of the other family members. One mole of gibbsium requires 91⁄9 kJ to liquify, and give off that same amount when solidifying. One mole of liquid gibbsium requires 1761⁄7 kJ to vaporize, and give off that same amount when condensing.
The triple point is almost identical to its melting point, but at a pressure of 1.87 pascals. Triple point is a point on the phase diagram where all three states of matter are allowed to exist. Liquid gibbsium would be nonexistent at any temperature below the triple point. On the other side of it is critical point, a minimum where liquid and gas would be indistinguishable. For a copper family member, gibbsium has the highest critical point temperature (4602°C), but the second lowest in critical point pressure (402 megapascals).
It is almost certain that gibbsium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of gibbsium in the universe by mass is 2.07 × 10−29, which amounts to 6.93 × 1023 kilograms, which is a little more mass than Mars in elemental abundance.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of gibbsium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 475Gb.