Symbol Gb
Atomic number 164
Pronunciation /'gibs•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Josiah Willard Gibbs
Name in Saurian Warrjaim (Wr)
Systematic name Unhexquadium (Uhq)
Location on the periodic table
Group 10
Period 8
Family Nickel family
Series Kelvinide series
Coordinate 7d8
Element above Gibbsium Darmstadtium
Element left of Gibbsium Keplerium
Element right of Gibbsium Becquerelium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 639
Atomic mass 478.9781 u, 795.3618 yg
Atomic radius 111 pm, 1.11 Å
Covalent radius 122 pm, 1.22 Å
van der Waals radius 181 pm, 1.81 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 475 (164 p+, 311 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.90
Nuclear radius 9.32 fm
Half-life 6.4866 h
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 164-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 4
Oxidation states 0, +2, +4, +6
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.73
First ionization energy 684.1 kJ/mol, 7.090 eV
Electron affinity 18.6 kJ/mol, 0.193 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 478.978 g/mol
Molar volume 10.455 cm3/mol
Density 45.812 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.26 × 1021 g−1
5.76 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 259 pm, 2.59 Å
Speed of sound 3211 m/s
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Color Brownish gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 1007.67 K, 1813.80°R
734.52°C, 1354.13°F
Boiling point 1668.56 K, 3003.41°R
1395.41°C, 2543.74°F
Liquid range 660.89 K, 1189.60°R
Liquid ratio 1.66
Triple point 1007.63 K, 1813.74°R
734.48°C, 1354.07°F
@ 1.8744 Pa, 0.014059 torr
Critical point 4875.47 K, 8775.84°R
4602.32°C, 8316.17°F
@ 401.9154 MPa, 3966.609 atm
Heat of fusion 9.116 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 176.136 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05757 J/(g•K), 0.10363 J/(g•°R)
27.577 J/(mol•K), 49.638 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 2.07 × 10−29
Absolute: 6.93 × 1023 kg
By atom 1.13 × 10−30

Gibbsium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Gb (sometimes Gi) and atomic number 164. Gibbsium was named in honor of Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), who pioneered chemical thermodynamics and one of the founders of statistical mechanics. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexquadium (Uhq), dvi-platinum, or simply element 164. Gibbsium is the heaviest member of the nickel family (below nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium) and is the eighth member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d8.

Atomic properties Edit

Hence its atomic number, gibbsium contains 164 protons, in addition to those that makeup the nucleus, there are also 311 neutrons that help stabilize the nucleus against the repulsive forces of protons. Nuclear ratio, which is the neutron/proton ratio, is 1.90. Since protons carry positive charge, the atom should have a charge of +164, but actually it is neutral because it contains 164 electrons, which carry negative charge of same degree as protons. This element has completed a 7d orbital, even though it is the third-to-last element of the d-block series on the periodic table; however it additionally contains two electrons in the 8p orbital due to relativistic effects.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, gibbsium has no stable isotopes. The element is at the center of the “second island of stability". The longest-lived isotope is 475Gb with a half-life of roughly 6½ hours, which is unusually long for elements as heavy as this element. Madelungium is at its peak of the "second island of stability." Despite this longevity, it undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into usually three (rarely two) lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.

Gb → 208
Pb + 114
Cd + 80
Se + 73 1
Gb → 210
Po + 200
Hg + 57 1

The second longest lived isotope, 479Gb, has a half-life of just 47 seconds. The third longest lived isotope, 477Gb, has a half-life of 17 seconds. The fourth longest lived isotope, 473Gb, has a half-life of 9 seconds. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 2 seconds while majority of these have half-lives of less than 80 milliseconds. Also there are few metastable isomers, couple are long-lived, the most stable being 475m1Gb with a half-life of nearly four months and 471m2Gb with a half-life of more than a month.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Gibbsium has four possible oxidation states: 0, +2, +4 and +6 with +6 the most dominant. With the electronegativity of 1.73 and first ionization energy 7.09 eV, gibbsium shows some chemical activities like zinc and mercury. In aqueous solutions, Gb2+ (light red) is the most stable cation, followed by Gb4+ (light blue) and Gb6+ (peach).

Gibbsium(IV) oxide (GbO2) is an olive green powder in contrast to gibbsium(VI) oxide (GbO3) being a dark purple powder. Gibbsium(IV) sulfide (GbS2) is a sky blue amorphous solid while gibbsium(VI) sulfide (GbS3) is a pink amorphous solid. Gibbsium can readily react with halogens such as fluorine, chlorine and bromine. Examples of gibbsium halides are GbF4, GbF6, GbCl4, and GbBr2. Gibbsium(II) bromate (Gb(BrO3)2) forms when bromide and oxide react together with excess oxygen at high temperature.

GbO2 + GbBr4 + 5 O2 → 2 Gb(BrO3)2

Gibbsium(II) fulminate (Gb(CNO)2) is a brownish red powder when a gibbsium oxide combines with cyanogen. The fulminate can react with excess hydrogen sulfide to form gibbsium thiocyanate (Gb(SCN)2), which is a pale pink powder.

Gb(CNO)2 + 2 H2S → Gb(SCN)2 + 2 H2O

Gibbsium thiocyanate can be decomposed to gibbsium cyanide (Gb(CN)2) and is then treated with dilute sulfuric acid to form gibbsium dithiazyl (Gb(SN)2) and an exotic acid called percarbonic acid.

Gb(CN)2 + 2 H2SO4 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 H2CO4

Alternatively, Gb(CN)2 can be treated with sulfur dioxide to form a dark brown powder Gb(SN)2.

Gb(CN)2 + 2 SO2 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 CO2

Gb(SN)2 can be converted to a more stable Gb(SN)4 by reducing S4N4 to S2N2.

Gb(SN)2 + S4N4 → Gb(SN)4 + S2N2

Gibbsium can form coordination complexes in addition to Gb(SN)2 and Gb(SN)4 by bonding to ligands in the 0 oxistate, like Gb(CO)4 and Gb(PF3)4. Gb(CO)4 is an organogibbsium compound along with examples like tetramethyl orthogibbate (GbC4H12O4).

Physical properties Edit

Gibbsium is a soft, brownish gray metal with a density of 45.8 g/cm3, 1.3 times higher than the lighter cogener darmstadtium (34.8 g/cm3). Unlike other members of the group, gibbsium forms hexagonal crystal lattices. Gibbsium has poor conductor of heat but fair conductor of electricity.

Due to its similar electron configurations as group 12 elements even though this element is a group 10 member, the physical properties of gibbsium would resemble group 12 elements more than to group 10 elements. For lighter group 12 elements, melting and boiling points decrease with increasing atomic numbers, but due to the element's ability to covalently bond with each other due to hybridization of electrons in the 8p1/2 orbital, it actually has the highest melting and boiling points of any other zinc family elements. The melting point of 735°C is in stark comparison with mercury (−39°C) and copernicium (−112°C). As a result, gibbsium is solid like family members zinc and cadmium. Due to their phase points, gibbsium requires more energy to melt and boil this element than any of the other family members. One mole of gibbsium requires 919 kJ to liquify, and give off that same amount when solidifying. One mole of liquid gibbsium requires 17617 kJ to vaporize, and give off that same amount when condensing.

The triple point is almost identical to its melting point, but at a pressure of 1.87 pascals. Triple point is a point on the phase diagram where all three states of matter are allowed to exist. Liquid gibbsium would be nonexistent at any temperature below the triple point. On the other side of it is critical point, a minimum where liquid and gas would be indistinguishable. For a copper family member, gibbsium has the highest critical point temperature (4602°C), but the second lowest in critical point pressure (402 megapascals).

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that gibbsium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of gibbsium in the universe by mass is 2.07 × 10−29, which amounts to 6.93 × 1023 kilograms, which is a little more mass than Mars in elemental abundance.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of gibbsium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 475Gb.

Bi + 205
Tl + 61 1
n → 475
Mt + 133
Cs + 55 1
n → 475
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ck Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Ws Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Oc Lb 10 Io Ly