|Name in Saurian|| Warraim (Wr)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexquadium (Uhq)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Copernicium (112Cn)|
|Previous element||Keplerium (163Kp)|
|Next element||Pasturium (165Ps)|
|Atomic mass||478.9781 u, 795.3618 yg|
|Atomic radius||111 pm, 1.11 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|Nucleons||475 (164 p+, 311 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||9.32 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 4
|Oxidation states|| 0, +2, +4, +6|
(mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||684.1 kJ/mol, 7.090 eV|
|Electron affinity||18.6 kJ/mol, 0.193 eV|
|Covalent radius||122 pm, 1.22 Å|
|Molar mass||478.978 g/mol|
|Molar volume||10.455 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||5.76 × 1022 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||259 pm, 2.59 Å|
|Speed of sound||3211 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Simple hexagonal|
|Melting point|| 1007.67 K, 734.52°C|
|Boiling point|| 1668.56 K, 1395.41°C|
|Liquid range||660.89 K/°C, 1189.60°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 1007.63 K, 734.48°C|
@ 1.8744 Pa, 0.014059 torr
|Critical point|| 4875.47 K, 4602.32°C|
@ 401.9154 MPa, 3966.609 atm
|Heat of fusion||9.116 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||176.136 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05757 J/g/K, 0.10363 J/g/°R|
27.577 J/mol/K, 49.638 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 2.07 × 10−37|
Absolute: 6.93 × 1015 kg
Gibbium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Gb and atomic number 164. Gibbium was named in honor of Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), who pioneered chemical thermodynamics and one of the founders of statistical mechanics. This element is known in scientific literature as unhexquadium (Uhq), dvi-mercury, or simply element 164. Gibbium is the heaviest member of the zinc family (below zinc, cadmium, mercury, and copernicium) and is the last member of the vanthoffide series; this element is located in periodic table coordinate 7d10. Despite it is a d-block element, it is the last period 8 element.
Gibbium is a soft, brownish gray metal with a density of 45.8 g/cm3, twice as high as the lighter cogener copernicium (23.7 g/cm3). Like zinc and cadmium, gibbium forms hexagonal crystal lattices. Gibbium has the poor conductor of heat but a fair conductor of electricity.
For lighter cogeners, melting and boiling points decrease with increasing atomic numbers, but due to the element's ability to covalently bond with each other due to hybridization of electrons in the 8p1/2 orbital, it actually has the highest melting and boiling points of any other zinc family elements. The melting point of 735°C is in stark comparison with mercury (−39°C) and copernicium (−112°C). As a result, gibbium is solid like family members zinc and cadmium. Due to their phase points, gibbium requires more energy to melt and boil this element than any of the other family members. One mole of gibbium requires 91⁄9 kJ to liquify, and give off that same amount when solidifying. One mole of liquid gibbium requires 1761⁄7 kJ to vaporize, and give off that same amount when condensing.
The triple point is almost identical to its melting point, but at a pressure of 1.87 pascals. Triple point is a point on the phase diagram where all three states of matter are allowed to exist. Liquid gibbium would be nonexistent at any temperature below the triple point. On the other side of it is critical point, a minimum where liquid and gas would be indistinguishable. For a copper family member, gibbium has the highest critical point temperature (4602°C), but the second lowest in critical point pressure (402 megapascals).
Hence its atomic number, gibbium contains 164 protons, in addition to those that makeup the nucleus, there are also 311 neutrons that help stabilize the nucleus against the repulsive forces of protons. Nuclear ratio, which is the neutron/proton ratio, is 1.90. Since protons carry positive charge, the atom should have a charge of +164, but actually it is neutral because it contains 164 electrons, which carry negative charge of same degree as protons. This element has completed a 7d orbital, consistent with its place on the periodic table, however it contains two electrons in the 8p orbital due to relativistic effects.
Like every other elements heavier than lead, gibbium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 475Gb with a half-life of roughly 3 minutes. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following example.
The second longest lived isotope, 479Gb, has a half-life of 47 seconds. The third longest lived isotope, 477Gb, has a half-life of 17 seconds. The fourth longest lived isotope, 473Gb, has a half-life of 9 seconds. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 2 seconds while majority of these have half-lives of less than 80 milliseconds. There are also a few metastable isomers including couple long-lived, the most stable being 475m1Gb with a half-life of nearly four months and 471m2Gb with a half-life of more than a month.
Gibbium has four possible oxidation states: 0, +2, +4 and +6 with +6 the most dominant. With the electronegativity of 1.73 and first ionization energy 7.09 eV, gibbium shows some chemical activities like lighter cogeners such as zinc and mercury. In aqueous solutions, Gb2+ (light red) is the most stable cation, followed by Gb4+ (light blue) and Gb6+ (peach).
Gibbium(IV) oxide (GbO2) is an olive green powder in contrast to gibbium(VI) oxide (GbO3) being a dark purple powder. Gibbium(IV) sulfide (GbS2) is a sky blue amorphous solid while gibbium(VI) sulfide (GbS3) is a pink amorphous solid. Gibbium can readily react with halogens such as fluorine and bromine. The examples of gibbium halides are GbF4, GbF6, and GbBr2. Gibbium(II) bromate (Gb(BrO3)2) forms when bromide and oxide react together with excess oxygen at high temperature.
- GbO2 + GbBr4 + 5 O2 → 2 Gb(BrO3)2
Gibbium(II) fulminate (Gb(CNO)2) is brownish red powder when a gibbium oxide combines with cyanogen. The fulminate can react with excess hydrogen sulfide to form gibbium thiocyanate (Gb(SCN)2), which is a pale pink powder.
- Gb(CNO)2 + 2 H2S → Gb(SCN)2 + 2 H2O
Gibbium thiocyanate can be decomposed to gibbium cyanide (Gb(CN)2) and is then treated with dilute sulfuric acid to form gibbium dithiazyl (Gb(SN)2) and an exotic acid called percarbonic acid.
- Gb(CN)2 + 2 H2SO4 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 H2CO4
Alternatively, Gb(CN)2 can be treated with sulfur dioxide to form a dark brown powder Gb(SN)2.
- Gb(CN)2 + 2 SO2 → Gb(SN)2 + 2 CO2
- Gb(SN)2 + S4N4 → Gb(SN)4 + S2N2
Gibbium can form coordination complexes in addition to Gb(SN)2 and Gb(SN)4 by bonding to ligands in the 0 oxistate, like Gb(CO)4 and Gb(PF3)4. Gb(CO)4 is an organogibbium compound along with examples like tetramethyl orthogibbate (GbC4H12O4).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that gibbium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then gibbium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of gibbium in the universe by mass is 2 × 10−37, which amounts to 6.93 × 1015 kilograms.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize gibbium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of gibbium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 475Gb.