|Named after||Benjamin Franklin|
|Name in Saurian|| Vhudbcadaim (Vd)|
|Systematic name|| Untrinilium (Utn)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Franklinium||Berzelium|
|Element right of Franklinium||Darwinium|
|353.9322 u, 587.7182 yg|
|Atomic radius||167 pm, 1.67 Å|
|Covalent radius||179 pm, 1.79 Å|
|van der Waals radius||195 pm, 1.95 Å|
|s||351 (130 p+, 221 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g5 6f3 7d1 8s2 8p1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 37, 21, 9, 3|
|Oxidation states|| +3, +5, +6, +7, +8|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||596.0 kJ/mol, 6.177 eV|
|Electron affinity||9.9 kJ/mol, 0.103 eV|
|Molar mass||353.932 g/mol|
|Molar volume||54.420 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.70 × 1021 g−1|
1.11 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||449 pm, 4.49 Å|
|Crystal structure||Base-centered orthorhombic|
|Melting point|| 409.68 K, 737.42°R|
|Boiling point|| 914.70 K, 1646.45°R|
|Liquid range||505.02 , 909.03|
|Triple point|| 409.68 K, 737.42°R|
@ 47.465 mPa, 3.5602 × 10−6 torr
|Critical point|| 2237.47 K, 4027.45°R|
@ 571.1412 MPa, 5636.744 atm
|Heat of fusion||5.651 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||108.592 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06870 J/(g• ), 0.12366 J/(g• )|
24.316 J/(mol• ), 43.768 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 6.34 × 10−26|
Absolute: 2.13 × 1027 kg
|By atom||4.70 × 10−24|
Franklinium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Fn and atomic number 130. Franklinium was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), who revolutionized the wave theory of light, investigated the effects of temperature on electrical conductivities, and proved that lightning is a form of electricity . This element is known in the scientific literature as untrinilium (Utn) or simply element 130. Franklinium is the tenth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g10.
Atomic properties Edit
Franklinium has the atomic radius of one-sixth of a nanometer. The atom contains 8 energy levels and 23 orbitals surrounding the nucleus. Energy levels and orbitals contain electrons, filled in order of ground state energies. In total, there are 130 electrons with the average of 16 electrons per energy level and 6 per orbital. The number of electrons in the order of energy levels are 2, 8, 18, 32, 37, 21, 9, 3. All those electrons orbit the nucleus that contains three times more particles than electrons. Nucleus contains two types of particles, one containing just the identical number of that particle as electrons, a reason why this atom has no overall charge.
Like every other element heavier than lead, franklinium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 351Fn with a half-life of 9.645 years. It alpha decays to 347By. 354Fn has a half-life of 403 days while 356Fn has a half-life of 203 days. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 50 hours while majority of these have half-lives less than 8 minutes.
Franklinium also has metastable isomer, the longest-lived is 348m3Fn with a half-life of 17 minutes. 348m1Fn has a half-life of 2.5 minutes while 351m1Fn 1.5 minutes. All the rest have half-lives less than three seconds and most will decay to corresponding ground state isotopes through isomeric transformation while others alpha decay, beta decay, cluster decay or undergo fission.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Franklinium has chemical properties similar to neighboring elements. Based on its electronegativity of 1.36 and first ionization energy of 6.18 eV, franklinium is moderately active. Elemental franklinium is unstable in the air as it loses luster due to the formation of oxide coating, which protects the metal inside. The element mainly exhibits +6 and +8 oxidation states as well as less common +3, +5 and +7 states. In aqueous solutions, however, +5 is slightly more common than +6. When dissolved in water, Fn3+ is green, Fn5+ is blue, and Fn6+ is dark purple. The metal is soluble in mineral acids such as sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
Franklinium burns with an orange-yellow flame to form dark blue-green powder franklinium(VI) oxide (FnO3) or greenish black franklinium(VIII) oxide (FnO4). Franklinium also burns in pure carbon dioxide atmosphere to form franklinium(VI) carbonate (Fn(CO3)3), which decomposes at 727 K (849°F) to FnO3 and CO2. Franklinium(VI) carbide (Fn2C3) forms when Fn(CO3)3 is heated with alkaline oxides such as calcium oxide (CaO) and water.
- 2 Fn(CO3)3 + 2 CaO + 2 H2O → Fn2C3 + 2 Ca(OH)2 + 3 CO2 + 6 O2
Franklinium halides can easily form, such as FnF8 and FnCl6. It can also form oxyhalides (when halide reacts with water) and nitrohalides, such as FnNF3, obtained when metal is heated with nitrogen trifluoride.
Organofranklinium are organic compounds of franklinium, including triethylfranklinium ((C2H5)3Fn), pentaphenylfranklinium ((C6H5)5Fn), and franklinium triformate (Fn(HCO2)3).
Physical properties Edit
Franklinium is a bluish gray metal with a mediocre density of 6.5 g/cm3. In one cm3 cube, there are approximately 11 sextillion (1.1 × 1022) atoms and the average distance between atoms is 460 picometers (4.60 angstroms). Franklinium forms base-centered orthorhombic, meaning atoms arrange to form a cube as well as one at the center of two sides. At its melting point of 278°F, franklinium would appear as a greenish gray liquid. The maximum temperature in which liquid franklinium is stable is 1187°F. Franklinium vapor is dark golden color at 1187°F. In order to melt one mole of franklinium, 5.65 kilojoules of energy is needed, while in order to boil one mole of it, 108.59 kilojoules is required.
It is certain that franklinium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of franklinium in the universe by mass is 6.34 × 10−26, which amounts to 2.13 × 1027 kilograms or more than Jupiter's mass worth of this element.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of franklinium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 351Fn.