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Etymologies of element names

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This is the list of 173 elements discussing their etymologies, including official, proposed, predicted, and made-up names.

Z Name Symbol Etymology
0 Neutronium Nu A subatomic particle neutron, since this element only contains neutron(s) in its nucleus.
1 Hydrogen H From the Latin hydor genes, derived from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ γείνομαι (hydor geinomai), meaning "to beget water," because water is the most common and important hydrogen compound.
2 Helium He From the Greek ἥλιος (Helios), meaning "Sun" and also "the god of Sun" in mythology.
3 Lithium Li From the Greek λιθος (lithos), meaning "stone," because this element was discovered from a mineral while other common alkali metals (sodium and potassium) were discovered from plant tissue.
4 Beryllium (Beryl) Be Beryllos, denoting "beryl," which contains beryllium.
5 Boron B لاعقشا (buraq), derived from the Persian "بورون" (burah), referring to "borax."
6 Carbon C From the French charbone, which in turn came from the Latin carbo, meaning "charcoal." (In German and Dutch, kohlenstoff and koolstof, respectively, both literally meaning "coal-stuff").
7 Nitrogen N

From the Latin nitrum genes, derived from the Greek νιτρον γείνομαι (nitron geinomai), meaning "native-soda (niter) forming."

It is sometimes known as Azotum, which means "Ashdod", the English name of that element, and its symbol is sometimes known as "Az".

8 Oxygen O From the Greek οξύς γείνομαι (oxys geinomai), meaning "acid to bring forth," as he believed it to be an essential component of acids.
9 Fluorine F Fluorspar, one of its compounds. Fluor is the Latin for "flowing."
10 Neon Ne From the Greek νέος (neos), meaning "new."
11 Sodium Na From the English soda, used in names for sodium compounds such as caustic soda, soda ash, and baking soda.

The symbol Na is from the Modern Latin name Natrium, derived from the Greek νιτρον (nítron), meaning "natural soda," a kind of salt.

12 Magnesium Mg From the Ancient Greek Μαγνήσια (Magnesia) (district in Thessaly), where this element was discovered.
13 Aluminum Al From the Latin alum, meaning "bitter salt."
14 Silicon Si From the Latin silex or silicis, meaning "flint," a kind of stone.
15 Phosphorus P From the Greek φωσ φόρος (phós phoros), meaning "light bearer," because "white phosphorus" emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen.

Phosphorus was an ancient name for the "planet Venus" as Phosphorus (Morning Star).

16 Sulfur S Almost certainly from the Arabic صفرا (sufra), "yellow," the bright color of the naturally occurring form. The word passed into Sanskrit गन्धक (sulvere or sulvari), the Latin "sulpur," the English "sulphur" or "sulfur," and also was commonly referred as "brimstone" in English translations of the Bible.
17 Chlorine Cl From the Greek χλώρος (chlorós), meaning "yellowish green" or "greenish yellow," because of the color of the gas.
18 Argon Ar Means "inactive" in Greek (literally "lazy").
19 Potassium K From the English potash, meaning "pot-ash" (potassium compound prepared from an alkali extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves).

The symbol K is from this elment's Latin name, Kalium, derived from the Arabic القلي (al qalīy), meaning "calcined ashes."

20 Calcium Ca From the Latin calx, meaning "lime." Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.
21 Scandium Sc From the Latin Scandia, meaning "Scandinavia."
22 Titanium Ti From the Greek τιτάν (titan), meaning "Earth." Also from Titans, the first sons of Gaia in Greek mythology.
23 Vanadium V From Vanadis, a goddess in Scandinavian mythology, because of its beautifully multicolored chemical compounds.
24 Chromium Cr From the Greek chroma, meaning "color," because there are many colorful chromium compounds.
25 Manganese Mn From the Latin magnes, meaning "magnet," for Magnetite or its magnetic property.
26 Iron Fe "Iron" (īsern) may derive from the Etruscan aisar, meaning "the god(s)," because the earliest iron to be worked (by the Sumerians and Egyptians, around 4000 BC) was obtained from meteorites, and meteorites fall from the sky.

Starting with two letters in this symbol: Fe, the Latin name of this element is Ferrum, meaning "Iron", which is the English name of that element.

27 Cobalt Co From the German kobalt, meaning "evil spirit," the metal being so called by miners, because this element was poisonous and troublesome (polluted and degraded the other mined elements like nickel). Other sources cite the origin as stemming from silver miners' belief that cobalt had been placed by "Kobolds" who had stolen the silver. Some also think the name may be derive from the Greek kobalos, meaning "mine," and which may have common roots with kobold, goblin, and cobalt.
28 Nickel Ni From the Swedish kupfernickel, meaning "copper-colored ore"; this referred to the ore niccolite from which this element was obtained.
29 Copper Cu Possibly derived from the Greek χαλκός (chalkos), meaning "copper (the metal)." May also be derived from the Latin (during the Roman empire) aes cyprium, ("aes" being the generic Latin term for copper alloys such as bronze, etc). Cyprium means "Cyprus," where so much of this element was mined; the name was simplified to cuprum and then eventually anglicized as "copper."
30 Zinc Zn From the German zink, may be derived from Old Persian.
31 Gallium Ga From the Latin gallia, meaning "Gaul" (Ancient France), and also gallus, meaning "rooster." The element was obtained as a free metal by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who named gallium after "France," his native land, and also, punningly, after himself as Lecoq (Le), meaning "the rooster," or in Latin gallus.

Also named in honor of Galileo Galilei, who improved the telescope and used it to discover four largest moons around Jupiter as well as few other astronomical discoveries.

32 Germanium Ge From the Latin Germania, meaning "Germany."
33 Arsenic As Arsenikon, derived from the Persian زرنيخ (zarnik), meaning "yellow orpiment."
34 Selenium Se From the Greek σελήνη (selene), meaning "Moon," and also the moon goddess Selene.
35 Bromine Br From the Greek βρωμος (brómos), meaning "stench," due to its characteristic smell.
36 Krypton Kr From the Greek κρυπτόσ (kryptos), meaning "hidden one," because it's a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas(like other noble gases).
37 Rubidium Rb From the Latin rubidus, meaning "deepest red," because of color in spectroscope.
38 Strontium Sr The mineral strontianite. (Strontianite was named after "the town of Strontian," the source of the mineral in Scotland.)
39 Yttrium Y Yttria, the (oxide) compound of yttrium. (Yttria was named after Ytterby, the village where the mineral gadolinite was found.)
40 Zirconium Zr From the Arabic ئشقنعى (zarkûn). Derived from the Persian زرگون (zargûn), meaning "gold like."
41 Niobium Nb Niobe, daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology.

An alternative name is Columbium (Cb), after the mineral columbite.

42 Molybdenum Mo From the Greek μόλυβδος (molybdos), "(like) lead."
43 Technetium Tc From the Greek τεχνητός (technetos), meaning "artificial," because it is the first predominantly artificial element.
44 Ruthenium Ru From the Latin Ruthenia, meaning "Russia."
45 Rhodium Rh From the Greek ρόδόν (rhodon), meaning "rose."
46 Palladium Pd The asteroid Pallas, which was discovered two years prior to this element's discovery. The asteroid was named after Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and victory.
47 Silver Ag From the Anglo-Saxon seolfor; compare Old High German "silabar."

The symbol Ag is possibly from the Latin name Argentum, maybe from "Aegean," because there was evidence of the metal on the islands of the Aegean Sea.

48 Cadmium Cd From the Latin cadmia, derived from the Greek "καδμεία" (kadmeia), meaning "calamine," a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals.
49 Indium In Indigo, because of the indigo spectrum lines.
50 Tin Sn Borrowed from a Proto-Indo-European language, and has cognates in several Germanic and Celtic languages.

The symbol Sn is from the Latin name Stannum.

51 Antimony Sb Possibly from the Greek αντι μόνος (anti monos), approximately meaning "opposed to solitude," as believed never to exist in pure form, or anti-monachos, (the French antimoine, still has adherents) for "monk-killer," because many early alchemists were monks and antimony is poisonous. May also be derived from the Pharaonic (Ancient Egypt), Antos Ammon (expression), which could be translated as "bloom of the god Ammon."

The symbol Sb is from Latin name, Stibium. The word derived from the Greek στιμμί (stimmi), probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian. Littré suggests the first form derives from stimmida, an accusative of stimmi. The Arabic word for the substance, as "mark" or "the cosmetic," can appear as ithmid, athmoud, othmod or uthmod.

52 Tellurium Te From the Latin Tellus, meaning "Earth." Also from Terra Mater, the Roman goddess personifying the Mother Earth.
53 Iodine I From the Greek ιοδες (iodes), meaning "violet," because of the color of the gas.
54 Xenon Xe From the Greek ξένος (xenos), meaning "foreign, a stranger."
55 Cesium Cs From the Latin caesius, meaning "sky blue." Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis.
56 Barium Ba From the Greek βαρυς (barys), meaning "heavy." The oxide was initially called "barote," then "baryta," which was modified to barium to describe the metal.
57 Lanthanum La From the Greek lanthanein, "to lie (hidden)."
58 Cerium Ce The dwarf planet Ceres, discovered two years prior to this element's discovery. The dwarf planet was named after Ceres, the Roman goddess of fertility.
59 Praseodymium Pr From the Greek πρασιος διδύμος (prasios didymos), meaning "green twin," because didymium separated into praseodymium and neodymium, with salts of different colors.
60 Neodymium Nd From the Greek νεος διδύμος (neos didymos), meaning "new twin," because didymium separated into praseodymium and neodymium, when they gave salts of different colors.
61 Promethium Pm The Classical god Prometheus, who stole the fire of heaven and gave it to mankind.
62 Samarium Sm The mineral samarskite. (Samarskite was named after "Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets," a Russian mine official.)
63 Europium Eu Europe, the continent where this element was discovered.
64 Gadolinium Gd Honoring Johan Gadolin, who was one of the founders of Nordic chemistry research, discovered Yttrium, and pioneered laboratory exercise teaching. (The mineral Gadolinite is also named for him.)
65 Terbium Tb Ytterby, the village in Sweden where the element was first discovered.
66 Dysprosium Dy From the Greek δυσπροσιτος (dysprositos), meaning "hard to get at."
67 Holmium Ho From the Latin Holmia, meaning "Stockholm."
68 Erbium Er Erbia, the village of Ytterby in Sweden, where large concentrations of yttria and erbium are located. Erbia and Terbia were confused at this time. After 1860, what had been known as Terbia was renamed Erbia, and after 1877, what had been known as Erbia was renamed Terbia.
69 Thulium Tm Thule, an ancient Roman name for a mythical country in the far north, perhaps Scandinavia.
70 Ytterbium Yb Ytterbia, the oxide compound of ytterbium. ((Neo-)Ytterbium was named after (Neon, from the Greek νέος (neos), meaning "new", and) Ytterby, the Swedish village near Vaxholm) where the mineral gadolinite was found.)

An alternative, but rejected name is Aldebaranium (Ad), after the red giant star, Aldebaran, located about 68 light years away in the zodiac constellation of Taurus.

71 Lutetium Lu From the Latin Lutetia, the city of "Paris."

An alternative name is Cassiopium (Cp), after the constellation in the northern sky, Cassiopeia, named after a vain queen ho boasted about her unrivalled beauty.

72 Hafnium Hf From the Latin Hafnia, meaning "Copenhagen," the capital of Denmark.
73 Tantalum Ta From the Greek ταντάλυς (Tantalus), who was punished after death by being condemned to stand knee-deep in water, if he bent to drink water, it drained below the level he could reach (in Greek mythology). This was considered similar to tantalum's general non-reactivity because of its inertness (it sits among reagents and is unaffected by them).
74 Tungsten W From the Swedish and Danish languages tung sten, meaning "heavy stone." The symbol W is from scientific name Wolfram. The element and its ore Wolframite, was named in honor of "Peter Woulfe," who discovered its existence. The names Wolfram or Volfram are still used in Swedish and several languages.
75 Rhenium Re From the Latin Rhenus, the "Rhine" river.
76 Osmium Os From the Greek οσμη (osme), meaning "a smell."
77 Iridium Ir From the Latin iris, meaning "of rainbows," because many iridium salts are strongly colored. Iris is the Greek goddess of rainbows and a messenger.
78 Platinum Pt From the Spanish platina, meaning "little silver," because this element was first encountered in silver mine.
79 Gold Au From the Anglo-Saxon "gold."

Au is from the Latin Aurum, meaning "shining dawn."

80 Mercury Hg The planet Mercury, named after Mercury, the Roman god of speed and messenger.

The symbol Hg is from the Greek name ὕδωρ αργυρος (hydor argyros), which became Latin Hydrargyrum; both meaning "water silver," because this silvery metal is a liquid like water, and has silvery metallic sheen.

81 Thallium Tl From the Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot (twig)," because of its bright green spectral emission lines.
82 Lead Pb The symbol Pb is from the Latin name Plumbum, whence the English "plumbing."
83 Bismuth Bi Bismuth, derived from the German Wismuth, perhaps from weiße masse, meaning "white mass," due to its appearance.
84 Polonium Po Poland, homeland of the discoverer Marie Curie.
85 Astatine At From the Greek αστατεο (astateo), meaning "unstable."
86 Radon Rn Radium, because of the radium emanation that produces radon, otherwise known as "Radium Emanation" (Em or En).

An alternative, but rejected name was Niton (Nt), derived from the Latin nitens, meaning "shining."

87 Francium Fr France, where this element was discovered (in the Curie Institute (Paris)).
88 Radium Ra From the Latin radius, meaning "ray," because of its radioactivity.
89 Actinium Ac From the Greek ακτίς (aktis, aktina, aktinos), meaning "beam (ray)."
90 Thorium Th Thor, the Norse god of thunder.
91 Protactinium Pa Derived from the former name Protoactinium (Pa) (from prefix proto="first" plus actinium.

An alternative, but rejected name is Brevium (Bv), derived from the Latin word brevis, meaning "brief" or "short."

92 Uranium U The planet Uranus, which was discovered eight years prior to this element's discovery. The planet was named after Uranus, the Greek god of sky and heaven.
93 Neptunium Np The planet Neptune, named after Neptune, the Roman god of oceans.
94 Plutonium Pu The dwarf planet Pluto, because this element was discovered directly after Neptunium and is higher than Uranium on the periodic table, so by analogy with the ordering of the planets and dwarf planets. The dwarf planet was named after Pluto, the Roman god of the underworld.
95 Americium Am Americas, because this element was synthesized in the United States.
96 Curium Cm Honoring Marie and Pierre Curie, who discovered radium and researched radioactivity.
97 Berkelium Bk University of California, Berkeley, where this element was synthesized.
98 Californium Cf The U.S. state of California and for the University of California, Berkeley.
99 Einsteinium Es Honoring Albert Einstein, for his work on theoretical physics including the photoelectric effect and theories of relativity.
100 Fermium Fm Honoring Enrico Fermi, who developed the first nuclear reactor, quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics.
101 Mendelevium Md Honoring Dmitri Mendeleyev, who invented the periodic table.
102 Nobelium No Honoring Alfred Nobel, who invented dynamite and institute the Nobel Prizes foundation.
103 Lawrencium Lr Honoring Ernest O. Lawrence, who was involved in the development of the cyclotron.

Formerly, the symbol Lw was used until 1963.

104 Rutherfordium Rf Honoring Ernest Rutherford, who pioneered the Bohr model of the atom and discovered the atomic nucleus.

An alternative, but rejected name is Kurchatovium (Ku), honoring Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov, who shared fundamental understanding of the uranium chain reaction and the nuclear reactor.

105 Dubnium Db Dubna, a town in Russia where this element was synthesized (in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research).

Two alternative, but rejected names are Hahnium (Ha) and Joliotium (Jl), honoring Otto Hahn, who shared the discovery of nuclear fission with Fritz Strassmann and Lise Meitner. He also discovered numerous radioactive elements, and Frédéric Joliot-Curie.

106 Seaborgium Sg Honoring Glenn T. Seaborg, who synthesized the chemistry of the transuranium elements, shared discoveries and isolated 10 elements, developed and proposed the actinide series.
107 Bohrium Bh

Honoring Niels Bohr, who made fundamental understanding of atomic structure and quantum mechanics.

Formerly, its name was Nielsbohrium (Ns).

108 Hassium Hs From the Latin Hassia, meaning "Hesse," the German state where this element was synthesized (Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt).
109 Meitnerium Mt Honoring Lise Meitner, who shared the discovery of nuclear fission with Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman.
110 Darmstadtium Ds Darmstadt, a city in Germany where this element was synthesized (GSI, located in Wixhausen, a small suburb north of Darmstadt).
111 Roentgenium Rg Honoring Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered and detected x-rays.
112 Copernicium Cn Honoring Nicolaus Copernicus, who accepted the heliocentic theory that all planets in our solar system including Earth, orbit the Sun.
113 Becquerelium Bc Honoring Henri Becquerel, who discovered radioactivity.
114 Flerovium Fl Honoring George Flyorov, a prominent Soviet nuclear physicist and founded the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (also known as the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Research).
115 Lazarium Lz Honoring Bob Lazar, who claimed that this element can be used as a nuclear fuel.
116 Livermorium Lv Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, where this element was synthesized.
117 Jointium J Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, where this element was synthesized.
118 Moskovium Mk Moscow metro area and Moscow Oblast where Dubna lies, where this element was synthesized.
119 Newtonium Nw Honoring Isaac Newton, who developed three laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.
120 Galilinium Gl Honoring Galileo Galilei, father of modern science who used newly invented telescope to discovered four largest moons around Jupiter, sunspots and craters on the Moon.
121 Lavoisium Ls Honoring Antoine Lavoisier, who redefined the concept of elements, constructed the metric system, and stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass.
122 Democritium Dm Honoring Democritus, who provided the first definition of atom.
123 Moselium Ms Honoring Henry Moseley, who modified the Mendeleyev’s periodic table by sorting it by atomic number.

An alternative name is Vandenbroekium (Vb), honoring Antonius van den Broek, who was the first to realize that the element numbers in the periodic table corresponds to the charge of its nucleus, which was tested by Moseley in the concept of atomic number.

124 Teslium Ts Honoring Nikola Tesla, who made revolutionary contributions to electricity and magnetism.
125 Daltonium Dt Honoring John Dalton, who developed the atomic theory, law of multiple proportions, and Dalton's law of partial pressures.
126 Maxwellium Mw Honoring James Clerk Maxwell, who first developed the electromagnetic theory.
127 Planckium Pk Honoring Max Planck, founder of the quantum theory, Planck’s law of black body radiation, Planck’s constant, and Planck postulate.
128 Boylium By Honoring Robert Boyle, who studied the concept of chemical elements and the physical properties of gases.
129 Berzelium Bz Honoring Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who worked out the modern technique of chemical formula notation and discovered several elements.
130 Franklinium Fk Honoring Benjamin Franklin, who revolutionized the wave theory of light and investigated the effects of temperature on electrical conductivities.
131 Darwinium Dw Honoring Charles Darwin, who established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry as a result of the natural selection.
132 Thomsonium To Honoring J. J. Thomson, who discovered an electron and isotopes and invented mass spectrometer.
133 Paulium Pl Honoring Linus Pauling, who studied the nature of chemical bonds and structures of molecules.

Also honoring Wolfgang Pauli, who proposed the spin theory with his exclusion principle.

134 Arrhenium Ah Honoring Svante Arrhenius, who founded physical chemistry, including Arrhenius equation and acid-base theory.
135 Meyerium My Honoring Lothar Meyer, who helped Dmitri Mendeleev to draw his first periodic table of the elements.
136 Cavendishium Cv Honoring Henri Cavendish, who discovered some of the most important elements in the periodic table (e.g. hydrogen and nitrogen).
137 Feynmanium Fy Honoring Richard Feynman, who worked on quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, superfluidity of liquid helium, and particle physics. He also presented the speed of light problem for 1s electron shell in this element. According to Fyenman, elements past Feynmanium has electrons in the 1s shell with speeds past the speed of light.
138 Chadwickium Ch Honoring James Chadwick, who discovered a neutron.
139 Astonium An Honoring Francis William Aston, who discovered isotopes and formulate the whole number rule of atomic masses.
140 Edisonium En Honoring Thomas Edison, who patented electricity and invented electric light bulb, phonograph, and the motion picture camera.
141 Dumasium Du Honoring Jean-Baptiste Dumas, who determined atomic weights and molecular weights.
142 Butlerovium Bu Honoring Aleksandr Butlerov, who developed the theory of chemical structure and incorporated double bonds into structure formulae.
143 Abeggium Ab Honoring Richard Abegg, who pioneered valence theory.
144 Scheelium Sh Honoring Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who discovered numerous chemical substances, including oxygen, molybdenum, tungsten, and chlorine.
145 Heisenbergium Hi Honoring Werner Heisenberg, who asserted the uncertainty principle of quantum theory.
146 Davyum Da Honoring Humphry Davy, who discovered numerous elements including several s-block elements and pioneered electrolysis.
147 Boltzmannium Bo Honoring Ludwig Boltzmann, who advocated atomic theory, and helped Jožef Stefan to develop Stefan–Boltzmann law.
148 Faradium Fa Honoring Michael Faraday, who pioneered experiments of electricity and magnetism and invented electric motor.
149 Avogadrium Ad Honoring Amedeo Avogadro, who developed the molecular theory, determined the number of particles in one mole of substance, and contributed gas law.
150 Schrodium So Honoring Erwin Schrödinger, who developed his equation for quantum mechanics.
151 Hertzium Hr Honoring Heinrich Hertz, who discovered the radio waves and its frequency, and established photoelectric effect.
152 Wittenium Wt Honoring Edward Witten, a pioneer in string theory and quantum field theory.
153 Diracium Dr Honoring Paul Dirac, who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
154 Lewisium Le Honoring Gilbert N. Lewis, who discovered covalent bond, reformulate chemical dynamics, developed theory of Lewis acids and bases, coined "photon," and explained phosphorescence.
155 Vanthoffium Vh Honoring Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, made discoveries in chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure, and stereochemistry.
156 Hawkinium Hk Honoring Stephen Hawking, who made famous contributions to the understanding about black holes, theoretical cosmology, and quantum gravity.
157 Kelvinium Ke Honoring Lord Kelvin, who developed the thermodynamic temperature.
158 Amperium Ap Honoring André-Marie Ampère, who pioneered electrodynamics.
159 Vanderwaalsium Vw Honoring Van der Waals, who worked on the equation of state and intermolecular forces.
160 Hundium Hu Honoring Friedrich Hund, who governed the electron configurations with maximum multiplicity (known as Hund's rules).
161 Fraunhoferium Fh Honoring Joseph von Fraunhofer, who revolutionized spectroscopy by discovering dark absorption lines on the spectrum, which are fingerprints for identifying elements or compounds.
162 Madelungium Ma Honoring Erwin Madelung, who stated that atomic orbitals are filled in order of n + l quantum numbers (known as Madelung rule).
163 Keplerium Kp Honoring Johannes Kepler, who developed the laws of planetary motion.
164 Gibbium Gb Honoring Josiah Willard Gibbs, who pioneered chemical thermodynamics and one of the founders of statistical mechanics.
165 Pasturium Ps Honoring Louis Pasteur, pioneer of microbiology who developed germ theory.
166 Hubbium Hb Honoring Edwin Hubble, who discovered that the universe goes beyond the Milky Way and observed that the universe is expanding.
167 Kirchoffium Kf Honoring Gustav Kirchhoff, who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
168 Bornium Bn Honoring Max Born, who developed quantum mechanics and made contributions to solid-state physics and optics.
169 Joulium Ju Honoring James Prescott Joule, who discovered the relationship between mechanical work and heat, developed the law of conservation of energy which led to the first law of thermodynamics.
170 Helmholtzium Hm Honoring Hermann von Helmholtz, who worked on the conservation of energy.
171 Bunsenium Bs Honoring Robert Bunsen, a pioneer in photochemistry, studied the emission spectra of heated substances.
172 Ramsium Rs Honoring William Ramsay, who discovered noble gases.

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