This page discusses the etymologies of all 175 elements, including elements with atomic numbers 0 and ∞. Elements 0 to 118 are officially named, while elements 119 to 173 are provisionally named.
|0||Neutronium||Nu||A subatomic particle neutron, since this element only contains neutron(s) in its nucleus.|
|1||Hydrogen||H||From the Latin hydor genes, derived from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ γείνομαι (hydor geinomai), meaning "to beget water," because water is the most common and important hydrogen compound.|
|2||Helium||He||From the Greek ἥλιος (Helios), meaning "Sun" and also "the god of Sun" in mythology.|
|3||Lithium||Li||From the Greek λιθος (lithos), meaning "stone," because this element was discovered from a mineral while other common alkali metals (sodium and potassium) were discovered from plant tissue.|
|4||Beryllium||Be||Beryllos, denoting "beryl," which contains beryllium.|
|5||Boron||B||لاعقشا (buraq), derived from the Persian "بورون" (burah), referring to "borax."|
|6||Carbon||C||From the French charbone, which in turn came from the Latin carbo, meaning "charcoal." (In German and Dutch, kohlenstoff and koolstof, respectively, both literally meaning "coal-stuff").|
From the Latin nitrum genes, derived from the Greek νιτρον γείνομαι (nitron geinomai), meaning "native-soda (niter) forming."
It is sometimes known as Azotum, which means "Ashdod", the English name of that element, and its symbol is sometimes known as "Az".
|8||Oxygen||O||From the Greek οξύς γείνομαι (oxys geinomai), meaning "acid to bring forth," as he believed it to be an essential component of acids.|
|9||Fluorine||F||Fluorspar, one of its compounds. Fluor is the Latin for "flowing."|
|10||Neon||Ne||From the Greek νέος (neos), meaning "new."|
|11||Sodium||Na|| From the English soda, used in names for sodium compounds such as caustic soda, soda ash, and baking soda.
The symbol Na is from the Modern Latin name Natrium, derived from the Greek νιτρον (nítron), meaning "natural soda," a kind of salt.
|12||Magnesium||Mg||From the Ancient Greek Μαγνήσια (Magnesia) (district in Thessaly), where this element was discovered.|
|13||Aluminum||Al||From the Latin alum, meaning "bitter salt."|
|14||Silicon||Si||From the Latin silex or silicis, meaning "flint," a kind of stone.|
|15||Phosphorus||P||From the Greek φωσ φόρος (phós phoros), meaning "light bearer," because "white phosphorus" emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen.|
|16||Sulfur||S||Almost certainly from the Arabic صفرا (sufra), "yellow," the bright color of the naturally occurring form. The word passed into Sanskrit गन्धक (sulvere or sulvari), the Latin "sulpur," the English "sulphur" or "sulfur," and also was commonly referred as "brimstone" in English translations of the Bible.|
|17||Chlorine||Cl||From the Greek χλώρος (chlorós), meaning "yellowish green" or "greenish yellow," because of the color of the gas.|
|18||Argon||Ar||Means "inactive" in Greek (literally "lazy").|
|19||Potassium||K|| From the English potash, meaning "pot-ash" (potassium compound prepared from an alkali extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves).
The symbol K is from this elment's Latin name, Kalium, derived from the Arabic القلي (al qalīy), meaning "calcined ashes."
|20||Calcium||Ca||From the Latin calx, meaning "lime." Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.|
|21||Scandium||Sc||From the Latin Scandia, meaning "Scandinavia."|
|22||Titanium||Ti||From the Greek τιτάν (titan), meaning "Earth." Also from Titans, the first sons of Gaia in Greek mythology.|
|23||Vanadium||V||From Vanadis, a goddess in Scandinavian mythology, because of its beautifully multicolored chemical compounds.|
|24||Chromium||Cr||From the Greek chroma, meaning "color," because there are many colorful chromium compounds.|
|25||Manganese||Mn||From the Latin magnes, meaning "magnet," for Magnetite or its magnetic property.|
|26||Iron||Fe|| "Iron" (īsern) may derive from the Etruscan aisar, meaning "the god(s)," because the earliest iron to be worked (by the Sumerians and Egyptians, around 4000 BC) was obtained from meteorites, and meteorites fall from the sky.
Starting with two letters in this symbol: Fe, the Latin name of this element is Ferrum, meaning "Iron", which is the English name of that element.
|27||Cobalt||Co||From the German kobalt, meaning "evil spirit," the metal being so called by miners, because this element was poisonous and troublesome (polluted and degraded the other mined elements like nickel). Other sources cite the origin as stemming from silver miners' belief that cobalt had been placed by "Kobolds" who had stolen the silver. Some also think the name may be derive from the Greek kobalos, meaning "mine," and which may have common roots with kobold, goblin, and cobalt.|
|28||Nickel||Ni||From the Swedish kupfernickel, meaning "copper-colored ore"; this referred to the ore niccolite from which this element was obtained.|
|29||Copper||Cu||Possibly derived from the Greek χαλκός (chalkos), meaning "copper (the metal)." May also be derived from the Latin (during the Roman empire) aes cyprium, ("aes" being the generic Latin term for copper alloys such as bronze, etc). Cyprium means "Cyprus," where so much of this element was mined; the name was simplified to cuprum and then eventually anglicized as "copper."|
|30||Zinc||Zn||From the German zink, may be derived from Old Persian.|
|31||Gallium||Ga||From the Latin gallia, meaning "Gaul" (Ancient France), and also gallus, meaning "rooster." The element was obtained as a free metal by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who named gallium after "France," his native land, and also, punningly, after himself as Lecoq (Le), meaning "the rooster," or in Latin gallus.|
|32||Germanium||Ge||From the Latin Germania, meaning "Germany."|
|33||Arsenic||As||Arsenikon, derived from the Persian زرنيخ (zarnik), meaning "yellow orpiment."|
|34||Selenium||Se||From the Greek σελήνη (selene), meaning "Moon," and also the moon goddess Selene.|
|35||Bromine||Br||From the Greek βρωμος (brómos), meaning "stench," due to its characteristic smell.|
|36||Krypton||Kr||From the Greek κρυπτόσ (kryptos), meaning "hidden one," because it's a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas(like other noble gases).|
|37||Rubidium||Rb||From the Latin rubidus, meaning "deepest red," because of color in spectroscope.|
|38||Strontium||Sr||The mineral strontianite. (Strontianite was named after "the town of Strontian," the source of the mineral in Scotland.)|
|39||Yttrium||Y||Yttria, the (oxide) compound of yttrium. (Yttria was named after Ytterby, the village where the mineral gadolinite was found.)|
|40||Zirconium||Zr||From the Arabic ئشقنعى (zarkûn). Derived from the Persian زرگون (zargûn), meaning "gold like."|
|41||Niobium||Nb|| Niobe, daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology.
An alternative name is Columbium (Cb), after the mineral columbite.
|42||Molybdenum||Mo||From the Greek μόλυβδος (molybdos), "(like) lead."|
|43||Technetium||Tc||From the Greek τεχνητός (technetos), meaning "artificial," because it is the first predominantly artificial element.|
|44||Ruthenium||Ru||From the Latin Ruthenia, meaning "Russia."|
|45||Rhodium||Rh||From the Greek ρόδόν (rhodon), meaning "rose."|
|46||Palladium||Pd||The asteroid Pallas, which was discovered two years prior to this element's discovery. The asteroid was named after Pallas Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and victory.|
|47||Silver||Ag|| From the Anglo-Saxon seolfor; compare Old High German "silabar."
The symbol Ag is possibly from the Latin name Argentum, maybe from "Aegean," because there was evidence of the metal on the islands of the Aegean Sea.
|48||Cadmium||Cd||From the Latin cadmia, derived from the Greek "καδμεία" (kadmeia), meaning "calamine," a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals.|
|49||Indium||In||Indigo, because of the indigo spectrum lines.|
|50||Tin||Sn|| Borrowed from a Proto-Indo-European language, and has cognates in several Germanic and Celtic languages.
The symbol Sn is from the Latin name Stannum.
|51||Antimony||Sb|| Possibly from the Greek αντι μόνος (anti monos), approximately meaning "opposed to solitude," as believed never to exist in pure form, or anti-monachos, (the French antimoine, still has adherents) for "monk-killer," because many early alchemists were monks and antimony is poisonous. May also be derived from the Pharaonic (Ancient Egypt), Antos Ammon (expression), which could be translated as "bloom of the god Ammon."
The symbol Sb is from Latin name, Stibium. The word derived from the Greek στιμμί (stimmi), probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian. Littré suggests the first form derives from stimmida, an accusative of stimmi. The Arabic word for the substance, as "mark" or "the cosmetic," can appear as ithmid, athmoud, othmod or uthmod.
|52||Tellurium||Te||From the Latin Tellus, meaning "Earth." Also from Terra Mater, the Roman goddess personifying the Mother Earth.|
|53||Iodine||I||From the Greek ιοδες (iodes), meaning "violet," because of the color of the gas.|
|54||Xenon||Xe||From the Greek ξένος (xenos), meaning "foreign, a stranger."|
|55||Cesium||Cs||From the Latin caesius, meaning "sky blue." Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis.|
|56||Barium||Ba||From the Greek βαρυς (barys), meaning "heavy." The oxide was initially called "barote," then "baryta," which was modified to barium to describe the metal.|
|57||Lanthanum||La||From the Greek lanthanein, "to lie (hidden)."|
|58||Cerium||Ce||The dwarf planet Ceres, discovered two years prior to this element's discovery. The dwarf planet was named after Ceres, the Roman goddess of fertility.|
|59||Praseodymium||Pr||From the Greek πρασιος διδύμος (prasios didymos), meaning "green twin," because didymium separated into praseodymium and neodymium, with salts of different colors.|
|60||Neodymium||Nd||From the Greek νεος διδύμος (neos didymos), meaning "new twin," because didymium separated into praseodymium and neodymium, when they gave salts of different colors.|
|61||Promethium||Pm||The Classical god Prometheus, who stole the fire of heaven and gave it to mankind.|
|62||Samarium||Sm||The mineral samarskite. (Samarskite was named after "Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets," a Russian mine official.)|
|63||Europium||Eu||Europe, the continent where this element was discovered.|
|64||Gadolinium||Gd||Honoring Johan Gadolin, who was one of the founders of Nordic chemistry research, discovered Yttrium, and pioneered laboratory exercise teaching. (The mineral Gadolinite is also named for him.)|
|65||Terbium||Tb||Ytterby, the village in Sweden where the element was first discovered.|
|66||Dysprosium||Dy||From the Greek δυσπροσιτος (dysprositos), meaning "hard to get at."|
|67||Holmium||Ho||From the Latin Holmia, meaning "Stockholm."|
|68||Erbium||Er||Erbia, the village of Ytterby in Sweden, where large concentrations of yttria and erbium are located. Erbia and Terbia were confused at this time. After 1860, what had been known as Terbia was renamed Erbia, and after 1877, what had been known as Erbia was renamed Terbia.|
|69||Thulium||Tm||Thule, an ancient Roman name for a mythical country in the far north, perhaps Scandinavia.|
|70||Ytterbium||Yb|| Ytterbia, the oxide compound of ytterbium. ((Neo-)Ytterbium was named after (Neon, from the Greek νέος (neos), meaning "new", and) Ytterby, the Swedish village near Vaxholm) where the mineral gadolinite was found.)
An alternative, but rejected name is Aldebaranium (Ad), after the red giant star, Aldebaran, located about 68 light years away in the zodiac constellation of Taurus.
|71||Lutetium||Lu|| From the Latin Lutetia, the city of "Paris."
An alternative name is Cassiopium (Cp), after the constellation in the northern sky, Cassiopeia, named after a vain queen ho boasted about her unrivalled beauty.
|72||Hafnium||Hf||From the Latin Hafnia, meaning "Copenhagen," the capital of Denmark.|
|73||Tantalum||Ta||From the Greek ταντάλυς (Tantalus), who was punished after death by being condemned to stand knee-deep in water, if he bent to drink water, it drained below the level he could reach (in Greek mythology). This was considered similar to tantalum's general non-reactivity because of its inertness (it sits among reagents and is unaffected by them).|
|74||Tungsten||W||From the Swedish and Danish languages tung sten, meaning "heavy stone." The symbol W is from scientific name Wolfram. The element and its ore Wolframite, was named in honor of "Peter Woulfe," who discovered its existence. The names Wolfram or Volfram are still used in Swedish and several languages.|
|75||Rhenium||Re||From the Latin Rhenus, the "Rhine" river.|
|76||Osmium||Os||From the Greek οσμη (osme), meaning "a smell."|
|77||Iridium||Ir||From the Latin iris, meaning "of rainbows," because many iridium salts are strongly colored. Iris is the Greek goddess of rainbows and a messenger.|
|78||Platinum||Pt||From the Spanish platina, meaning "little silver," because this element was first encountered in silver mine.|
|79||Gold||Au|| From the Anglo-Saxon "gold."
Au is from the Latin Aurum, meaning "shining dawn."
|80||Mercury||Hg|| The planet Mercury, named after Mercury, the Roman god of speed and messenger.
The symbol Hg is from the Greek name ὕδωρ αργυρος (hydor argyros), which became Latin Hydrargyrum; both meaning "water silver," because this silvery metal is a liquid like water, and has silvery metallic sheen.
|81||Thallium||Tl||From the Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot (twig)," because of its bright green spectral emission lines.|
|82||Lead||Pb||The symbol Pb is from the Latin name Plumbum, whence the English "plumbing."|
|83||Bismuth||Bi||Bismuth, derived from the German Wismuth, perhaps from weiße masse, meaning "white mass," due to its appearance.|
|84||Polonium||Po||Poland, homeland of the discoverer Marie Curie.|
|85||Astatine||At||From the Greek αστατεο (astateo), meaning "unstable."|
|86||Radon||Rn|| Radium, because of the radium emanation that produces radon, otherwise known as "Radium Emanation" (Em or En).
An alternative, but rejected name was Niton (Nt), derived from the Latin nitens, meaning "shining."
|87||Francium||Fr||France, where this element was discovered (in the Curie Institute (Paris)).|
|88||Radium||Ra||From the Latin radius, meaning "ray," because of its radioactivity.|
|89||Actinium||Ac||From the Greek ακτίς (aktis, aktina, aktinos), meaning "beam (ray)."|
|90||Thorium||Th||Thor, the Norse god of thunder.|
|91||Protactinium||Pa|| Derived from the former name Protoactinium (Pa) (from prefix proto="first" plus actinium.
An alternative, but rejected name is Brevium (Bv), derived from the Latin word brevis, meaning "brief" or "short."
|92||Uranium||U||The planet Uranus, which was discovered eight years prior to this element's discovery. The planet was named after Uranus, the Greek god of sky and heaven.|
|93||Neptunium||Np||The planet Neptune, named after Neptune, the Roman god of oceans.|
|94||Plutonium||Pu||The dwarf planet Pluto, because this element was discovered directly after Neptunium and is higher than Uranium on the periodic table, so by analogy with the ordering of the planets and dwarf planets. The dwarf planet was named after Pluto, the Roman god of the underworld.|
|95||Americium||Am||Americas, because this element was synthesized in the United States.|
|96||Curium||Cm||Honoring Marie and Pierre Curie, who discovered radium and researched radioactivity.|
|97||Berkelium||Bk||University of California, Berkeley, where this element was synthesized.|
|98||Californium||Cf||The U.S. state of California and for the University of California, Berkeley.|
|99||Einsteinium||Es||Honoring Albert Einstein, for his work on theoretical physics including the photoelectric effect and theories of relativity.|
|100||Fermium||Fm||Honoring Enrico Fermi, who developed the first nuclear reactor, quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics.|
|101||Mendelevium||Md||Honoring Dmitri Mendeleyev, who invented the periodic table.|
|102||Nobelium||No||Honoring Alfred Nobel, who invented dynamite and institute the Nobel Prizes foundation.|
|103||Lawrencium||Lr|| Honoring Ernest O. Lawrence, who was involved in the development of the cyclotron.
Formerly, the symbol Lw was used until 1963.
|104||Rutherfordium||Rf||Honoring Ernest Rutherford, who pioneered the Bohr model of the atom and discovered the atomic nucleus.|
|105||Dubnium||Db|| Dubna, a town in Russia where this element was synthesized (in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research).
Two alternative, but rejected names are Hahnium (Ha) and Joliotium (Jl), honoring Otto Hahn, who shared the discovery of nuclear fission with Fritz Strassmann and Lise Meitner. He also discovered numerous radioactive elements, and Frédéric Joliot-Curie.
|106||Seaborgium||Sg||Honoring Glenn T. Seaborg, who synthesized the chemistry of the transuranium elements, shared discoveries and isolated 10 elements, developed and proposed the actinide series.|
Formerly, its name was Nielsbohrium (Ns).
|108||Hassium||Hs||From the Latin Hassia, meaning "Hesse," the German state where this element was synthesized (Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt).|
|109||Meitnerium||Mt||Honoring Lise Meitner, who shared the discovery of nuclear fission with Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman.|
|110||Darmstadtium||Ds||Darmstadt, a city in Germany where this element was synthesized (GSI, located in Wixhausen, a small suburb north of Darmstadt).|
|111||Roentgenium||Rg||Honoring Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered and detected x-rays.|
|112||Copernicium||Cn||Honoring Nicolaus Copernicus, who accepted the heliocentic theory that all planets in our solar system including Earth, orbit the Sun.|
|113||Nihonium||Nh||Nihon, Japanese name for Japan, where this element was synthesized.|
|114||Flerovium||Fl||Honoring George Flyorov, a prominent Soviet nuclear physicist and founded the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (also known as the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Research).|
|115||Moscovium||Mc||Moscow metro area and Moscow Oblast where Dubna lies, where this element was synthesized.|
|116||Livermorium||Lv||Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, where this element was synthesized.|
|117||Tennessine||Tn||After the state of Tennessee where this element was synthesized.|
|118||Oganesson||Og||Honoring Yuri Oganessian, who helped discover the element.|
|119||Newtonium||Nw||Honoring Isaac Newton, who developed three laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.|
|120||Galileum||G||Honoring Galileo Galilei, father of modern science who used newly invented telescope to discovered four largest moons around Jupiter, sunspots and craters on the Moon.|
|121||Lavoisium||Ls||Honoring Antoine Lavoisier, who redefined the concept of elements, constructed the metric system, and stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass.|
|122||Democritium||Dm||Honoring Democritus, who provided the first definition of atom.|
|123||Moselium||Ms|| Honoring Henry Moseley, who modified the Mendeleyev’s periodic table by sorting it by atomic number.
An alternative name is Vandenbroekium (Vb), honoring Antonius van den Broek, who was the first to realize that the element numbers in the periodic table corresponds to the charge of its nucleus, which was tested by Moseley in the concept of atomic number.
|124||Teslium||Ts||Honoring Nikola Tesla, who made revolutionary contributions to electricity and magnetism.|
|125||Daltonium||Dt||Honoring John Dalton, who developed the atomic theory, law of multiple proportions, and Dalton's law of partial pressures.|
|126||Maxwellium||Mw||Honoring James Clerk Maxwell, who first developed the electromagnetic theory.|
|127||Planckium||Pk||Honoring Max Planck, founder of the quantum theory, Planck’s law of black body radiation, Planck’s constant, and Planck postulate.|
|128||Boylium||By||Honoring Robert Boyle, who studied the concept of chemical elements and the physical properties of gases.|
|129||Berzelium||Bz||Honoring Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who worked out the modern technique of chemical formula notation and discovered several elements.|
|130||Franklinium||Fn||Honoring Benjamin Franklin, who revolutionized the wave theory of light and investigated the effects of temperature on electrical conductivities.|
|131||Darwinium||Dw||Honoring Charles Darwin, who established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry as a result of the natural selection.|
|132||Thomsonium||To||Honoring J. J. Thomson, who discovered an electron and isotopes and invented mass spectrometer.|
|133||Paulium||Pl||Honoring Linus Pauling, who studied the nature of chemical bonds and structures of molecules.|
|134||Arrhenium||Ah||Honoring Svante Arrhenius, who founded physical chemistry, including Arrhenius equation and acid-base theory.|
|135||Meyerium||My||Honoring Lothar Meyer, who helped Dmitri Mendeleev to draw his first periodic table of the elements.|
|136||Cavendishium||Cv||Honoring Henri Cavendish, who discovered some of the most important elements in the periodic table (e.g. hydrogen and nitrogen).|
|137||Feynmanium||Fy||Honoring Richard Feynman, who worked on quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, superfluidity of liquid helium, and particle physics. He also presented the speed of light problem for 1s electron shell in this element. According to Fyenman, elements past Feynmanium has electrons in the 1s shell with speeds past the speed of light.|
|138||Chadwickium||Ch||Honoring James Chadwick, who discovered a neutron.|
|139||Astonium||A||Honoring Francis William Aston, who discovered isotopes and formulate the whole number rule of atomic masses.|
|140||Edisonium||Ed||Honoring Thomas Edison, who patented electricity and invented electric light bulb, phonograph, and the motion picture camera.|
|141||Dumasium||Du||Honoring Jean-Baptiste Dumas, who determined atomic weights and molecular weights.|
|142||Butlerovium||Bu||Honoring Aleksandr Butlerov, who developed the theory of chemical structure and incorporated double bonds into structure formulae.|
|143||Abeggium||Ab||Honoring Richard Abegg, who pioneered valence theory.|
|144||Scheelium||Sh||Honoring Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who discovered numerous chemical substances, including oxygen, molybdenum, tungsten, and chlorine.|
|145||Heisenbergium||Hb||Honoring Werner Heisenberg, who asserted the uncertainty principle of quantum theory.|
|146||Davyum||Da||Honoring Humphry Davy, who discovered numerous elements including several s-block elements and pioneered electrolysis.|
|147||Boltzmannium||Bo||Honoring Ludwig Boltzmann, who advocated atomic theory, and helped Jožef Stefan to develop Stefan–Boltzmann law.|
|148||Faradium||Fa||Honoring Michael Faraday, who pioneered experiments of electricity and magnetism and invented electric motor.|
|149||Avogadrium||Ad||Honoring Amedeo Avogadro, who developed the molecular theory, determined the number of particles in one mole of substance, and contributed gas law.|
|150||Schrodium||So||Honoring Erwin Schrödinger, who developed his equation for quantum mechanics.|
|151||Hertzium||Hr||Honoring Heinrich Hertz, who discovered the radio waves and its frequency, and established photoelectric effect.|
|152||Wittenium||Wt||Honoring Edward Witten, a pioneer in string theory and quantum field theory.|
|153||Diracium||Dr||Honoring Paul Dirac, who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.|
|154||Lewisium||Le||Honoring Gilbert N. Lewis, who discovered covalent bond, reformulate chemical dynamics, developed theory of Lewis acids and bases, coined "photon," and explained phosphorescence.|
|155||Vanthoffium||Vh||Honoring Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, made discoveries in chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure, and stereochemistry.|
|156||Hawkinium||Hk||Honoring Stephen Hawking, who made famous contributions to the understanding about black holes, theoretical cosmology, and quantum gravity.|
|157||Kelvinum||Ke||Honoring Lord Kelvin, who developed the thermodynamic temperature.|
|158||Amperium||Ap||Honoring André-Marie Ampère, who pioneered electrodynamics.|
|159||Vanderwaalsium||Vw||Honoring Van der Waals, who worked on the equation of state and intermolecular forces.|
|160||Hundium||Hu||Honoring Friedrich Hund, who governed the electron configurations with maximum multiplicity (known as Hund's rules).|
|161||Fraunhoferium||Fh||Honoring Joseph von Fraunhofer, who revolutionized spectroscopy by discovering dark absorption lines on the spectrum, which are fingerprints for identifying elements or compounds.|
|162||Madelungium||Ma|| Honoring Erwin Madelung, who stated that atomic orbitals are filled in order of n + l quantum numbers (known as Madelung rule).
An alternative name is janetium (Ja), honoring Charles Janet, who suggested that each row of the periodic table corresponds to one value of n + ℓ.
|163||Keplerium||Kp||Honoring Johannes Kepler, who developed the laws of planetary motion.|
|164||Gibbsium||Gb||Honoring Josiah Willard Gibbs, who pioneered chemical thermodynamics and one of the founders of statistical mechanics.|
|165||Becquerelium||Bc||Honoring Henri Becquerel, who discovered radioactivity.|
|166||Higgsium||Hi||Honoring Peter Higgs, who predicted the existence of Higgs boson (the God particle) before it was discovered.|
|167||Kirchoffium||Kf||Honoring Gustav Kirchhoff, who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.|
|168||Bornium||Bn||Honoring Max Born, who developed quantum mechanics and made contributions to solid-state physics and optics.|
|169||Joulium||J||Honoring James Prescott Joule, who discovered the relationship between mechanical work and heat, developed the law of conservation of energy which led to the first law of thermodynamics.|
|170||Helmholtzium||Hm||Honoring Hermann von Helmholtz, who worked on the conservation of energy.|
|171||Bunsenine||Bs||Honoring Robert Bunsen, a pioneer in photochemistry, studied the emission spectra of heated substances.|
|172||Ramson||Rs||Honoring William Ramsay, who discovered noble gases.|
|173||Ultimium||Ul||From the Latin ultimus, meaning "last," as this is the last possible element of the periodic table.|
|∞||Infinitium||If||From "infinity," as this imaginary element has many properties that are infinite, including the number of component particles and its density.|