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Dumasium

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Dumasium (141Du)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'düm•äs•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Timujaim (Ti)
/'tīm•ush•ām/
Systematic name Unquadunium (Uqu)
/'ün•kwod•ün•ē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 6f1
Above element Actinium (89Ac)
Below element ––
Previous element Edisonium (140Ed)
Next element Butlerovium (142Bu)
Family Lanthanum family
Series Dumaside series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 388.2176 u, 644.6504 yg
Atomic radius 141 pm, 1.41 Å
Van der Waals radius 170 pm, 1.70 Å
Subatomic particles 526
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 385 (141 p+, 244 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.73
Nuclear radius 8.69 fm
Half-life 1.0410 ms
Electronic properties
Electron notation 141-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g15 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 47, 20, 10, 4
Oxidation states +2, +3, +4, +5
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.63
First ionization energy 687.6 kJ/mol, 7.127 eV
Electron affinity 61.2 kJ/mol, 0.635 eV
Covalent radius 164 pm, 1.64 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 388.218 g/mol
Molar volume 57.328 cm3/mol
Density 6.772 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.55 × 1021 g−1
1.05 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 457 pm, 4.57 Å
Speed of sound 2650 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Body centered cubic
Color Grayish white
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 921.89 K, 1659.41°R
648.74°C, 1199.74°F
Boiling point 1979.28 K, 3562.71°R
1706.13°C, 3103.04°F
Liquid range 1057.39 K, 1903.30°R
Liquid ratio 2.15
Triple point 921.87 K, 1659.36°R
648.72°C, 1199.69°F
@ 83.388 mPa, 6.2546 × 10−4 torr
Critical point 3560.30 K, 6408.53°R
3287.15°C, 5948.86°F
@ 18.5962 MPa, 183.530 atm
Heat of fusion 8.903 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 190.328 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05577 J/(g•K), 0.10039 J/(g•°R)
21.652 J/(mol•K), 38.974 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 3.34 × 10−37
Absolute: 1.12 × 1016 kg

Dumasium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Du and atomic number 141. Dumasium was named in honor of Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800–1884), who determined atomic weights and molecular weights. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadunium (Uqu), eka-actinium, or simply element 141. Dumasium is the first member of the third f-block series (below lanthanum and actinium) in the namesake dumaside series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f1.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Dumasium is a grayish white metal that is malleable and ductile that shows luster. Dumasium's density is about 6.77 g/cm3, similar to antimony and cerium. It has a body faced cubic crystal structure, but when cooled to −138°F it changes to face centered cubic. It is paramagnetic with the Curie point of −425°F, at that temperature it becomes antiferromagnetic when cooled.

Dumasium is solid at room temperature (77°F) with the melting point of 1200°F and boiling point 3103°F, corresponding to its liquid range of 1903°F and liquid ratio of 2.15 (only calculated when converted to Rankine or Kelvin scale). One mole of dumasium requires 39 Joules of energy to heat by 1°F.

Atomic Edit

Despite dumasium is the first f-block element of period 8, the electrons are still filling the g-orbital, it now needs three more electrons to be completed. The g-orbital has 15 electrons out of 18. Despite this, there is one more electron in the f-orbital than what the periodic table expects. The atomic nucleus is composed of 385 nucleons (141 protons, 244 neutrons).

Isotopes Edit

Like every other trans-lead elements, dumasium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 385Du with a brief half-life of 1 millisecond, undergoing spontaneous fission like the example.

385
141
Du → 208
84
Po + 139
57
La + 38 1
0
n

Dumasium also has meta states, several are much longer-lived than the most stable ground state isotope. The longest-lived meta state is 388m4Du with a half-life of 4.5 hours, 386m2Du has a half-life of 13.7 minutes, and 389mDu with a half-life of 3.8 seconds.

Chemical Edit

Even though dumasium is eka-actinium, it is considerably less reactive than actinium due to its higher electronegativity and higher ionization energies. However, like actinium, dumasium's most common oxidation state is +3, although unlike actinium, it also shows a +4 common state as well as less common +1 and +2. In aqueous solutions, +2 (green) and +3 (grayish black) oxistates are common, such as DuCO3 (+2), Du(NO3)3 (+3), DuSO3 (+2), and DuPO4 (+3). +4 state is most commonly found in chalcides, halides, and oxyhalides, such as DuO2, DuF4, and DuOCl2.

Compounds Edit

DuF3 is an aqua green crystalline solid which can be fluoridized to DuF4 with hydrofluoric acid, which is a sky blue crystals. DuCl3 is a lime green ionic solid which can be chloridized to DuCl4 with hydrochloric acid or with chlorine gas, which is a sea green ionic salt. If pure element is exposed to air for days, Du2O3 forms as a black film and the film would later be oxidized to DuO2, which is identical in appearance to the initial.

DuBr3 is a brown ionic salt that is in stark contrast with DuBr4, which is a dark green crystalline solid. DuI3 is a yellowish orange while DuI4 is reddish purple. Since astatine is very radioactive with an eight-hour half-life, astatides of dumasium, DuAt3 and DuAt4, would transform to DuBi and Du3Bi4 through alpha decay of astatine. These bismuthides are highly unstable and would readily decompose. Jointides of dumasium, DuJ3 and DuJ4 would be much longer lasting than astatides, since jointium, an element below astatine, has a half-life of over seven years compared to just eight hours for astatine.

Since +3 is the most common oxidation state of dumasium, it can form binary compounds with pnictides, such as DuN (black), DuP (bluish black), DuAs (greenish brown), and DuSb (maroon). DuBi, just mentioned as unstable, is a brownish black solid. Stable dumasium icosagides are DuB and DuAl. At +4 state, it can form binary compounds with carbon, silicon, and germanium to make refractive solids along with DuB and DuAl.

Organodumasium compounds can also be made, meaning it can form complex compounds involving carbon, hydrogen, radicals, and others. Dumasium in organodumasium most commonly carries either +3 or +2 oxidation states, though +4 state is very useful because it can bond to four carbon atoms. Examples of organodumasium are triethyldumasium ((C2H5)3Du) and dumasium acetate (Du(CH3CO2)2).

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that dumasium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then dumasium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of dumasium in the universe by mass is 3.34 × 10−37, which amounts to 1.12 × 1016 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize dumasium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of dumasium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 385Du.

202
80
Hg + 145
61
Pm + 38 1
0
n → 385
141
Du
237
93
Np + 114
48
Cd + 34 1
0
n → 385
141
Du
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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