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|Name in Saurian|| Timujaim (Ti)|
|Systematic name|| Unquadunium (Uqu)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Actinium (89Ac)|
|Previous element||Edisonium (140Ed)|
|Next element||Butlerovium (142Bu)|
|388.2176 u, 644.6504 yg|
|Atomic radius||141 pm, 1.41 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||170 pm, 1.70 Å|
|s||385 (141 p+, 244 n0)|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g15 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 47, 20, 10, 4
|Oxidation states|| +2, +3, +4, +5|
(mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||687.6 kJ/mol, 7.127 eV|
|Electron affinity||61.2 kJ/mol, 0.635 eV|
|Covalent radius||164 pm, 1.64 Å|
|Molar mass||388.218 g/mol|
|Molar volume||57.328 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.55 × 1021 g−1|
1.05 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||457 pm, 4.57 Å|
|Crystal structure||Body centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 921.89 K, 1659.41°R|
|Boiling point|| 1979.28 K, 3562.71°R|
|Liquid range||1057.39 , 1903.30|
|Triple point|| 921.87 K, 1659.36°R|
@ 83.388 mPa, 6.2546 × 10−4 torr
|Critical point|| 3560.30 K, 6408.53°R|
@ 18.5962 MPa, 183.530 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.903 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||190.328 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05577 J/(g• ), 0.10039 J/(g• )|
21.652 J/(mol• ), 38.974 J/(mol• )
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 3.34 × 10−37|
Absolute: 1.12 × 1016 kg
Dumasium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Du and atomic number 141. Dumasium was named in honor of Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800–1884), who determined atomic weights and molecular weights. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadunium (Uqu), eka-actinium, or simply element 141. Dumasium is the first member of the third f-block series (below lanthanum and actinium) in the namesake dumaside series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f1.
Dumasium is a grayish white metal that is malleable and ductile that shows luster. Dumasium's density is about 6.77 g/cm3, similar to antimony and cerium. It has a body faced cubic crystal structure, but when cooled to −138°F it changes to face centered cubic. It is paramagnetic with the Curie point of −425°F, at that temperature it becomes antiferromagnetic when cooled.
Dumasium is solid at room temperature (77°F) with the melting point of 1200°F and boiling point 3103°F, corresponding to its liquid range of 1903°F and liquid ratio of 2.15 (only calculated when converted to Rankine or Kelvin scale). One mole of dumasium requires 39 Joules of energy to heat by 1°F.
Despite dumasium is the first f-block element of period 8, the electrons are still filling the g-orbital, it now needs three more electrons to be completed. The g-orbital has 15 electrons out of 18. Despite this, there is one more electron in the f-orbital than what the periodic table expects. The atomic nucleus is composed of 385 nucleons (141 protons, 244 neutrons).
Dumasium also has meta states, several are much longer-lived than the most stable ground state isotope. The longest-lived meta state is 388m4Du with a half-life of 4.5 hours, 386m2Du has a half-life of 13.7 minutes, and 389mDu with a half-life of 3.8 seconds.
Even though dumasium is eka-actinium, it is considerably less reactive than actinium due to its higher electronegativity and higher ionization energies. However, like actinium, dumasium's most common oxidation state is +3, although unlike actinium, it also shows a +4 common state as well as less common +1 and +2. In aqueous solutions, +2 (green) and +3 (grayish black) oxistates are common, such as DuCO3 (+2), Du(NO3)3 (+3), DuSO3 (+2), and DuPO4 (+3). +4 state is most commonly found in chalcides, halides, and oxyhalides, such as DuO2, DuF4, and DuOCl2.
DuF3 is an aqua green crystalline solid which can be fluoridized to DuF4 with hydrofluoric acid, which is a sky blue crystals. DuCl3 is a lime green ionic solid which can be chloridized to DuCl4 with hydrochloric acid or with chlorine gas, which is a sea green ionic salt. If pure element is exposed to air for days, Du2O3 forms as a black film and the film would later be oxidized to DuO2, which is identical in appearance to the initial.
DuBr3 is a brown ionic salt that is in stark contrast with DuBr4, which is a dark green crystalline solid. DuI3 is a yellowish orange while DuI4 is reddish purple. Since astatine is very radioactive with an eight-hour half-life, astatides of dumasium, DuAt3 and DuAt4, would transform to DuBi and Du3Bi4 through alpha decay of astatine. These bismuthides are highly unstable and would readily decompose. Jointides of dumasium, DuJ3 and DuJ4 would be much longer lasting than astatides, since jointium, an element below astatine, has a half-life of over seven years compared to just eight hours for astatine.
Since +3 is the most common oxidation state of dumasium, it can form binary compounds with pnictides, such as DuN (black), DuP (bluish black), DuAs (greenish brown), and DuSb (maroon). DuBi, just mentioned as unstable, is a brownish black solid. Stable dumasium icosagides are DuB and DuAl. At +4 state, it can form binary compounds with carbon, silicon, and germanium to make refractive solids along with DuB and DuAl.
Organodumasium compounds can also be made, meaning it can form complex compounds involving carbon, hydrogen, radicals, and others. Dumasium in organodumasium most commonly carries either +3 or +2 oxidation states, though +4 state is very useful because it can bond to four carbon atoms. Examples of organodumasium are triethyldumasium ((C2H5)3Du) and dumasium acetate (Du(CH3CO2)2).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that dumasium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then dumasium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of dumasium in the universe by mass is 3.34 × 10−37, which amounts to 1.12 × 1016 kilograms.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize dumasium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of dumasium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 385Du.