|Name in Saurian|| Tomeshakaim (Tm)|
|Systematic name|| Unbibium (Ubb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element below Democritium||Gregorium|
|Element left of Democritium||Lavoisium|
|Element right of Democritium||Moselium|
|328.7223 u, 545.8562 yg|
|Atomic radius||188 pm, 1.88 Å|
|Covalent radius||191 pm, 1.91 Å|
|van der Waals radius||217 pm, 2.17 Å|
|s||326 (122 p+, 204 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 7d1 8s2 8p1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 9, 3|
|Oxidation states|| +2, +3, +4|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||505.7 kJ/mol, 5.241 eV|
|Electron affinity||12.0 kJ/mol, 0.125 eV|
|Molar mass||328.722 g/mol|
|Molar volume||20.091 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.83 × 1021 g−1|
3.00 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||322 pm, 3.22 Å|
|Color|| Grayish white|
|Melting point|| 1312.85 K, 2363.13°R|
|Boiling point|| 2004.19 K, 3607.54°R|
|Liquid range||691.34 , 1244.41|
|Triple point|| 1312.84 K, 2363.11°R|
@ 211.62 Pa, 1.5873 torr
|Critical point|| 4313.06 K, 7763.50°R|
@ 34.2586 MPa, 338.107 atm
|Heat of fusion||14.591 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||178.465 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05621 J/(g•|
18.476 J/(mol• ), 33.257 J/(mol• ) ), 0.10117 J/(g• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 4.60 × 10−14|
Absolute: 1.54 × 1039 kg
|By atom||3.67 × 10−15|
Democritium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Dm and atomic number 122. Democritium was named in honor of Democritus (ca. 460 BC–ca. 370 BC), who provided the first definition of atom. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbibium (Ubb) or simply element 122. Democritium is the second element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g2.
Atomic properties Edit
Democritium has 122 protons, hence its atomic number, and 204 neutrons. Summing protons and neutrons yields 326 nucleons, which is its mass number. Its atomic mass, summing up all of the subatomic particles within the atom, including electrons, is 328.7223 daltons.
There are 122 electrons in eight energy levels and 22 orbitals, hence the notation 122-8-22. Number of electrons must equal the number of protons in order to be called an atom, if any other number of electrons, it would be called an ion. Like all other g-block, f-block, and d-block elements, democritium has two electrons in the outermost shell, just like in the innermost shell. Despite democritium is a g-block element, there is one electron in the 8p orbital as well as one in the 7d orbital due to relativistic effects.
Its electronegativity, the scale to acquire electrons from another atom, is 1.07, which is low, but near the typical value for other g-block elements. Its atomic radius is 208 pm. Combining a relatively large atom with a low electronegativity would make democritium a reactive element.
Like every other element heavier than lead, democritium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 326Dm with an extremely long half-life of 84 billion years, merely six times longer than the present age of our universe at 13.8 billion years, because democritium is a member of the island of stability. It alpha decays to 322G. 326Dm is the longest isotope of any element since 209Bi, whose half-life is over 100,000 times longer.
There are two other long-lived isotopes: 325Dm with a half-life of 6.275 million years, and 327Dm with a half-life of 45.8 billion years. Both isotopes alpha decay to 321G and 323G, respectively. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives of less than 5000 years and the majority of these have half-lives of less than two years. 324Dm has a half-life of 4713 years, 1001 years less than the half-life of carbon-14. Like most elements, democritium has meta states. The longest-lived is 323m1Dm which decay through gamma emission to 323Dm with a very long half-life of 2.7 years.
In the universe, 326Dm makes up 97.54% of all democritium atoms, 327Dm makes up the remaining 2.46%.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Democritium is assumed to behave like other lavoisoids. Due to electrons filling in different orbital because of the closeness to each other, not all lavoisoids have similar chemical properties. Due to its low electronegativity (1.07), low ionization energy (5.24 eV), and large atomic radius (188 pm), democritium would be reactive. As it is typical for g-block elements, democritium would readily combine with nonmetals, water and acids. Democritium strongly exhibits a +4 oxidation state (tetravalent), while +2 (divalent) and +3 (trivalent) states are also stable but less common. The electron configuration of Dm4+ ion, often found in solutions, is the same as oganesson.
Democritium(IV) oxide (DmO2) is a yellowish white solid. This is the most common oxide of democritium since the metal simply bond with oxygen molecule of the air. The lesser known oxides are democritium(III) oxide (Dm2O3) and democritium(II) oxide (DmO), which are orange and pale green solids, respectively. Democritium(IV) hydroxide (Dm(OH)4) is a white powder formed when democritium or an oxide reacts vigorously with water. Democritium(IV) sulfate (Dm(SO4)2) is a yellow powder formed when the democritium reacts vigorously with sulfuric acid. Democritium(IV) nitrate (Dm(NO3)4) is a pale pink powder formed when the metal reacts readily with nitric acid. Democritium(IV) carbonate (Dm(CO3)2) is a dark red powder formed when the metal slowly reacts with carbonic acid. Like almost all other elements, democritium reacts most vigorously with fluorine and chlorine. Democritium(III) fluoride (DmF3) and democritium(III) chloride (DmCl3) are maroon salt and crimson salt respectively. DmF3 and DmCl3 can also form when the metal reacts with corresponding hydrohalic acids. Democritium(IV) sulfide (DmS2) is a light orange solid formed when it reacts with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide. Democritium(III) nitride (DmN) is a white solid formed when the metal reacts with pure nitrogen or ammonia at around 300°C.
Democritium can react with organic compounds to form organodemocritium compounds, such as trimethyldemocritium (Me3Dm).
Physical properties Edit
Like most metals, democritium is silvery that is soft and lustrous. Democritium has the density of 16.36 g/cm3, three times denser than Earth and would sink very quickly in water. Democritium has a tetragonal crystal structure and is diamagnetic. The sound would travel through this metal at 1148 m/s, which is thrice that through the air. There are 30 sextillion atoms in one mole of democritium, thrice as many as stars in the observable universe, and the average distance between atoms is 3.22 Å.
The melting point of democritium is 1040°C (1313 K) and the boiling point is 1731°C (2004 K), corresponding to its liquid range of 691°C (691 K) and liquid ratio 1.53. The pressure where boiling point equals its melting point, called its triple point, is 212 pascals, which is one-third the atmospheric pressure of Mars.
It is certain that democritium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. Democritium can only be made naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be produced artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial democritium more abundant than natural democritium in the universe. This element exists plentifully in the universe at an estimated abundance of 4.60 × 10−14 by mass, which amounts to 1.54 × 1039 kilograms or nearly a billion Suns worth of this element, making it the most abundant transoganesson element in the universe.
Claimed discovery Edit
In April 2008, a group led by Amnon Marinov at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem claimed to have found atoms of democritium in naturally occurring thorium deposits at between 10−11 and 10−12 times as abundant as thorium. However, further experiments found that this discovery was spurious.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of democritium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 326Dm.
There had been couple of failed attempts to synthesize democritium without enriching it with neutrons. In the near future, democritium shall successfully be made here on Earth.
Imaginative applications Edit
Democritium can be used in a variety of ways due to its nuclear stability. Like most metals, democritium can form alloys with other metals to improve durability, strength, and resist corrosion.