|Name in Saurian|| Tuhnadaim (To)|
|Systematic name|| Untriunium (Utu)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Previous element||Franklinium (130Fk)|
|Next element||Thomsonium (132To)|
|Atomic mass||356.9574 u, 592.7416 yg|
|Atomic radius||164 pm, 1.64 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||196 pm, 1.96 Å|
|Nucleons||354 (131 p+, 223 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||8.45 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g7 6f2 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 39, 20, 8, 4
|Oxidation states|| +3, +5, +6, 7|
(strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||630.5 kJ/mol, 6.534 eV|
|Electron affinity||68.6 kJ/mol, 0.711 eV|
|Covalent radius||174 pm, 1.74 Å|
|Molar mass||356.957 g/mol|
|Molar volume||71.373 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||8.44 × 1021 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||491 pm, 4.91 Å|
|Speed of sound||1652 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Simple monoclinic|
|Melting point|| 655.20 K, 382.05°C|
|Boiling point|| 1551.01 K, 1277.86°C|
|Liquid range||895.80 K/°C, 1612.44°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 655.21 K, 382.06°C|
@ 535.96 μPa, 4.0201 × 10−6 torr
|Critical point|| 3750.22 K, 3477.07°C|
@ 395.8536 MPa, 3906.784 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.032 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||171.165 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06589 J/g/K, 0.11861 J/g/°R|
23.521 J/mol/K, 42.338 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 7.08 × 10−27|
Absolute: 2.37 × 1026 kg
Darwinium is the fabricated name of a theoretical element with the symbol Dw and atomic number 131. Darwinium was named in honor of Charles Darwin (1809–1882), who established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry as a result of the natural selection. This element is known in scientific literature as untriunium (Utu), or simply element 131. Darwinium is the eleventh element of the lavoiside series and located in periodic table coordinate 5g11.
Darwinium is a soft gray metal with a density of 5 g/cm3 and molar volume of 71.4 cm3/mol. Multiplying density and molar volume yields a molar mass 357 g/mol, identical to its atomic mass. Its crystal structure is monoclinic and the average atomic separation is as wide as five angstroms. Because of the large distances between atoms, there are few atoms in one cc of substance at 8.4 × 1021.
Darwinium liquifies at 720°F (1179°R) and vaporizes at 2332°F (2792°R). The difference between these temperatures yield a liquid range of 1612°F (1613°R) and liquid darwinium is stable within a factor of 2.37 on the absolute temperature scale. Solid, liquid, and gas are all stable at one point in temperature and pressure, at 719.71°F (1179.38°R) and 535.96 μPa.
Darwinium contains 131 electrons residing in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus. Due to spin-orbit coupling, there are seven electrons in the g-orbital instead of eleven of what the periodic table expects. Electrons carry negative charge, and are balanced by the same number of positively charged protons found in the nucleus, a reason why this atom is neutral. In addition to the 131 protons found in the nucleus, there are 223 neutrons which help keep the nucleus bound against the repulsive forces of protons.
As it is for every other elements heavier than lead, darwinium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 354Dw with a half-life of 6 months, cluster decaying to 324Ts by emitting 6Li and 4He nuclei, as well as 20 neutrons. 346Dw is the second longest-lived isotope with a half-life of 5.2 days, 351Dw has a half-life of 3.4 hours, and 355Dw has a half-life of 1.2 hours. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 23 minutes and majority of these have half-lives less than 27 seconds. Darwinium also has numerous metastable isomers, the longest-lived is 357m1Dw with a half-life of 23 minutes.
Darwinium is reactive and can forms compounds with ease. Due to its low binding energy of electrons, the most common oxidation state is +7, although it can also exhibit +3, +5 and +6 states. In aqueous solutions though, +7 is the rarest oxistate.
The metal would bluen when exposed to air to form a basic oxide, which would form a base when dissolved in water. Due to it basic property of metal, darwinium neutralizes mineral acids such as sulfuric acid to form a brown solution Dw(SO4)3, and hydrochloric acid to liberate pale green gas DwCl7. Darwinium can even burn in pure nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C to form sea green darwinium(VI) nitride (DwN2).
The highest halides of darwinium are DwF7 (colorless gas), DwCl7 (pale green gas), DwBr6 (brown powder), DwI5 (red powder). The most common oxide of darwinium is Dw2O7 (dark blue rhombic crystals). Darwinium can form compounds with lower oxistates, such as darwinium trioxide (DwO3), darwinium sesquioxide (Dw2O3), and binary nitride, DwN. DwS3 is the highest sulfide of darwinium. DwS3 is an orange crystalline solid while Dw2S3 is a pale yellow powder.
Hence the element was named after pioneering life scientist, darwinium can form life-giving compounds called organic compounds or organodarwinium. An example is trimethyldarwinium (Dw(CH3)3), which is a colorless, pyrophoric liquid which freezes at −20°F (440°R) and boils at 88°F (548°R).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is certain that darwinium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is extremely rare in the universe. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then darwinium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element can only practically be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of darwinium in the universe by mass is 7.08 × 10−27, which amounts to 2.37 × 1026 kg or 40 Earths worth of darwinium in mass.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize darwinium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of darwinium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 354Dw.