|Named after||Charles Darwin|
|Name in Saurian|| Tuhnadaim (Tn)|
|Systematic name|| Untriunium (Utu)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Darwinium||Franklinium|
|Element right of Darwinium||Thomsonium|
|356.9574 u, 592.7416 yg|
|Atomic radius||164 pm, 1.64 Å|
|Covalent radius||174 pm, 1.74 Å|
|van der Waals radius||196 pm, 1.96 Å|
|s||354 (131 p+, 223 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g6 6f3 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 38, 21, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +3, +5, +6, 7|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||630.5 kJ/mol, 6.534 eV|
|Electron affinity||68.6 kJ/mol, 0.711 eV|
|Molar mass||356.957 g/mol|
|Molar volume||71.373 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.69 × 1021 g−1|
8.44 × 1021 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||491 pm, 4.91 Å|
|Melting point|| 655.20 K, 1179.37°R|
|Boiling point|| 1551.01 K, 2791.81°R|
|Liquid range||895.80 , 1612.44|
|Triple point|| 655.21 K, 1179.38°R|
@ 535.96 μPa, 4.0201 × 10−6 torr
|Critical point|| 3750.22 K, 6750.40°R|
@ 395.8536 MPa, 3906.784 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.032 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||171.165 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06589 J/(g• ), 0.11861 J/(g• )|
23.521 J/(mol• ), 42.338 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 7.08 × 10−27|
Absolute: 2.37 × 1026 kg
|By atom||5.21 × 10−28|
Darwinium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Dw and atomic number 131. Darwinium was named in honor of Charles Darwin (1809–1882), who established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry as a result of the natural selection. This element is known in the scientific literature as untriunium (Utu) or simply element 131. Darwinium is the eleventh element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g11.
Atomic properties Edit
Darwinium contains 131 electrons residing in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus. Due to spin-orbit coupling, there are seven electrons in the g-orbital instead of eleven of what the periodic table expects. Electrons carry negative charge, and are balanced by the same number of positively charged protons found in the nucleus, a reason why this atom is neutral. In addition to the 131 protons found in the nucleus, there are 223 neutrons which help keep the nucleus bound against the repulsive forces of protons.
As it is for every other element heavier than lead, darwinium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 354Dw with a half-life of 6 months, cluster decaying to 324Ts by emitting 6Li and 4He nuclei, plus 20 neutrons. 346Dw is the second longest-lived isotope with a half-life of 5.2 days, 351Dw has a half-life of 3.4 hours, and 355Dw has a half-life of 1.2 hours. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 23 minutes and majority of these have half-lives less than 27 seconds. Darwinium also has numerous metastable isomers, the longest-lived is 357m1Dw with a half-life of 23 minutes.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Darwinium is reactive and can forms compounds with ease. Due to its low binding energy of electrons, the most common oxidation state is +7, although it can also exhibit +3, +5 and +6 states. In aqueous solutions though, +7 is the rarest oxistate mentioned.
The metal would bluen when exposed to air to form a basic oxide, which would form a base when dissolved in water. Due to it basic property of metal, darwinium neutralizes mineral acids such as sulfuric acid to form a brown solution Dw(SO4)3, and hydrochloric acid to liberate pale green gas DwCl7. Darwinium can even burn in pure nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C to form sea green darwinium(VI) nitride (DwN2).
The highest halides of darwinium are DwF7 (colorless gas), DwCl7 (pale green gas), DwBr6 (brown powder), and DwI5 (red powder). The most common oxide of darwinium is Dw2O7 (dark blue rhombic crystals). Darwinium trioxide (DwO3) and darwinium sesquioxide (Dw2O3) are lower oxides of darwinium. DwN is a binary nitride, carrying +3 oxistate for darwinium and −3 state for nitrogen in the brown powder. DwS3 is the highest sulfide of darwinium. DwS3 is an orange crystalline solid while Dw2S3 is a pale yellow powder.
Hence the element was named after pioneering life scientist, darwinium can form life-giving compounds called organic compounds, organodarwinium in this case. An example is trimethyldarwinium (Dw(CH3)3), which is a colorless, pyrophoric liquid which freezes at −20°F (440°R) and boils at 88°F (548°R).
Physical properties Edit
Darwinium is a soft gray metal with a density of 5 g/cm3 and molar volume of 71.4 cm3/mol. Multiplying density and molar volume yields a molar mass 357 g/mol, identical to its atomic mass. Its crystal structure is monoclinic and the average atomic separation is as wide as five angstroms. Because of the large distances between atoms, there are few atoms in one cc of substance at 8.4 × 1021.
Darwinium liquifies at 720°F (1179°R) and vaporizes at 2332°F (2792°R). The difference between these temperatures yield a liquid range of 1612°F (1613°R) and liquid darwinium is stable within a factor of 2.37 on the absolute temperature scale. Solid, liquid, and gas are all stable at one point in temperature and pressure, at 719.71°F (1179.38°R) and 535.96 μPa.
It is certain that darwinium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of darwinium in the universe by mass is 7.08 × 10−27, which amounts to 2.37 × 1026 kg or 40 Earths worth of darwinium in mass.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of darwinium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 354Dw.