|Named after||John Dalton|
|Name in Saurian|| Tuckedaim (Tk)|
|Systematic name|| Unbipentium (Ubp)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element below Daltonium||Huygenium|
|Element left of Daltonium||Teslium|
|Element right of Daltonium||Maxwellium|
|334.7718 u, 555.9016 yg|
|Atomic radius||171 pm, 1.71 Å|
|Covalent radius||183 pm, 1.83 Å|
|van der Waals radius||202 pm, 2.02 Å|
|s||332 (125 p+, 207 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g1 6f2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 33, 20, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +3, +4, +5, +6, +7|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||479.4 kJ/mol, 4.969 eV|
|Electron affinity||41.1 kJ/mol, 0.426 eV|
|Molar mass||334.772 g/mol|
|Molar volume||18.794 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.80 × 1021 g−1|
3.20 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||315 pm, 3.15 Å|
|Color|| Bluish gray|
|Melting point|| 1025.97 K, 1846.75°R|
|Boiling point|| 2244.17 K, 4039.50°R|
|Liquid range||1218.20 , 2192.75|
|Triple point|| 1025.87 K, 1846.57°R|
@ 30.626 mPa, 2.2972 × 10−4 torr
|Critical point|| 4162.19 K, 7491.95°R|
@ 34.7145 MPa, 342.606 atm
|Heat of fusion||13.850 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||219.109 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.07938 J/(g• ), 0.14289 J/(g• )|
26.575 J/(mol• ), 47.836 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 1.77 × 10−20|
Absolute: 5.92 × 1032 kg
|By atom||1.39 × 10−21|
Daltonium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Dt and atomic number 125. Daltonium was named in honor of John Dalton (1766–1844), who developed atomic theory, law of multiple proportions, and Dalton's law of partial pressures. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbipentium (Ubp) or simply element 125. Daltonium is the fifth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g5.
Atomic properties Edit
Daltonium contains 125 electrons in 23 orbitals in 8 shells. Even though it is the fifth element of the g-block series, this element added just the first electron in the g-orbital, because due to relativistic effects, there are two in the f-orbital and two in the p-orbital to account for the g-orbital missing four electrons. All the electrons surround the nucleus whose nuclear ratio (proton-neutron ratio) is 1.66 (125 protons, 207 neutrons).
Like every other trans-lead element, daltonium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 332Dt with a long half-life (t½) of 25 million years, it alpha decays to 328Ms. Another isotope of note is 336Dt, whose half-life is 5,208 years, similar to the half-life of carbon-14 (5,728 years), beta decaying to 336Mw. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than a year while majority of these have half-lives less than 5 minutes.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Like other g-block elements, daltonium is chemically active and forms many compounds. For example, it would readily combine with air to form an oxide, fizzes with water to form a hydroxide, and neutralize acids because it is a basic metal. Its electronegativity is 1.15, which is low but about typical value for a g-block element, meaning it loses electrons quite easily to form daltonium ions, most commonly Dt6+, telling that this element most commonly displays a +6 oxidation state, meaning it can bond to for example seven halide ions to form ionic salts such as DtCl6, which is a hexavalent compound.
Daltonium(IV) oxide (DtO2) is a dark blue solid while daltonium(VI) oxide (DtO3) is a grayish black solid. Daltonium(III) sulfide (Dt2S3) is a red solid while daltonium(VII) sulfide (Dt2S7) is a pinkish white solid. The element has black and white nitrides, the white nitride is DaN while the black nitride is DtN2. Examples of halides are DaF6, DaF7, DaCl5, and DaCl6. An example of salt is Dt(NO3)6. Dt(OH)6 is a strong base. Daltonium(VII) hydride (DtH5) is a colorless gas formed when daltonium is heated with water and calcium carbide.
- 2 Dt + 5 H2O + CaC2 → 2 DtH5 + CaCO3 + CO2
Another hydride is DtH7, which is also a colorless gas.
Physical properties Edit
Daltonium is a bluish gray metal similar in appearance to lead. The density is 17.8 g/cm3, calculated by dividing its molar mass (334.8 g/mol) by its molar volume (18.8 cm3/mol). Daltonium forms hexagonal crystal structure with the average atomic separation of 3.15 Å and sound travels through it at 611 m/s, 78% faster than sound travelling through air.
It liquifies at 753°C, taking in 13.85 kJ of energy during the process and temperature do not rise while in the process of liquification. After process is completed, it stays liquid until its vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure, called its boiling point. At that point, the liquid converts into gas. If we raise the ambient pressure, its boiling point will go up, and its boiling point will go down with decrease in ambient pressure. If we decrease the ambient pressure down to 30.6 mPa, the boiling point would equal the melting point, called the triple point. If we decrease the pressure even more, then the temperature ceiling for solid daltonium would decrease because just like liquid, solid has vapor pressure and has volatility. In other words, below its triple point, it would convert solid directly into gas (a process called sublimation) at a temperature below its melting point. If we raise the pressure up to 34.7 MPa, darwinium can exist as a supercritical fluid beyond its boiling point, called its critical point. For daltonium, the boiling point at the critical point pressure would be 3889°C.
It is certain that daltonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. This element can theoretically be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be made artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial daltonium more abundant than natural daltonium in the universe. An estimated abundance of daltonium in the universe by mass is 1.77 × 10−20, which amounts to 5.92 × 1032 kilograms or close to the mass of Hyades star cluster worth of this element.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of daltonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 332Dt.