Symbol Dt
Atomic number 125
Pronunciation /'dul•tōn•ē•(y)üm/
Named after John Dalton
Name in Saurian Tuckedaim (Tk)
Systematic name Unbipentium (Ubp)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Daltonium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g5
Element below Daltonium Huygenium
Element left of Daltonium Teslium
Element right of Daltonium Maxwellium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 457
Atomic mass 334.7718 u, 555.9016 yg
Atomic radius 171 pm, 1.71 Å
Covalent radius 183 pm, 1.83 Å
van der Waals radius 202 pm, 2.02 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 332 (125 p+, 207 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.66
Nuclear radius 8.28 fm
Half-life 24.968 My
Decay mode Alpha decay
Decay product 328Ms
Electronic properties
Electron notation 125-8-23
Electron configuration [Og] 5g1 6f2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 33, 20, 8, 4
Oxidation states +3, +4, +5, +6, +7
(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.15
First ionization energy 479.4 kJ/mol, 4.969 eV
Electron affinity 41.1 kJ/mol, 0.426 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 334.772 g/mol
Molar volume 18.794 cm3/mol
Density 17.813 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.80 × 1021 g−1
3.20 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 315 pm, 3.15 Å
Speed of sound 611 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Color Bluish gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 1025.97 K, 1846.75°R
752.82°C, 1387.08°F
Boiling point 2244.17 K, 4039.50°R
1971.02°C, 3579.83°F
Liquid range 1218.20 K, 2192.75°R
Liquid ratio 2.19
Triple point 1025.87 K, 1846.57°R
752.72°C, 1386.90°F
@ 30.626 mPa, 2.2972 × 10−4 torr
Critical point 4162.19 K, 7491.95°R
3889.04°C, 7032.28°F
@ 34.7145 MPa, 342.606 atm
Heat of fusion 13.850 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 219.109 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.07938 J/(g•K), 0.14289 J/(g•°R)
26.575 J/(mol•K), 47.836 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 1.77 × 10−20
Absolute: 5.92 × 1032 kg
By atom 1.39 × 10−21

Daltonium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Dt and atomic number 125. Daltonium was named in honor of John Dalton (1766–1844), who developed atomic theory, law of multiple proportions, and Dalton's law of partial pressures. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbipentium (Ubp) or simply element 125. Daltonium is the fifth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g5.

Atomic properties Edit

Daltonium contains 125 electrons in 23 orbitals in 8 shells. Even though it is the fifth element of the g-block series, this element added just the first electron in the g-orbital, because due to relativistic effects, there are two in the f-orbital and two in the p-orbital to account for the g-orbital missing four electrons. All the electrons surround the nucleus whose nuclear ratio (proton-neutron ratio) is 1.66 (125 protons, 207 neutrons).

Its atomic radius is 211 picometers (2.11 Å) with van der Waals radius slightly less.

Isotopes Edit

Like every other trans-lead element, daltonium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 332Dt with a long half-life (t½) of 25 million years, it alpha decays to 328Ms. Another isotope of note is 336Dt, whose half-life is 5,208 years, similar to the half-life of carbon-14 (5,728 years), beta decaying to 336Mw. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than a year while majority of these have half-lives less than 5 minutes.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Like other g-block elements, daltonium is chemically active and forms many compounds. For example, it would readily combine with air to form an oxide, fizzes with water to form a hydroxide, and neutralize acids because it is a basic metal. Its electronegativity is 1.15, which is low but about typical value for a g-block element, meaning it loses electrons quite easily to form daltonium ions, most commonly Dt6+, telling that this element most commonly displays a +6 oxidation state, meaning it can bond to for example seven halide ions to form ionic salts such as DtCl6, which is a hexavalent compound.

Daltonium(IV) oxide (DtO2) is a dark blue solid while daltonium(VI) oxide (DtO3) is a grayish black solid. Daltonium(III) sulfide (Dt2S3) is a red solid while daltonium(VII) sulfide (Dt2S7) is a pinkish white solid. The element has black and white nitrides, the white nitride is DaN while the black nitride is DtN2. Examples of halides are DaF6, DaF7, DaCl5, and DaCl6. An example of salt is Dt(NO3)6. Dt(OH)6 is a strong base. Daltonium(VII) hydride (DtH5) is a colorless gas formed when daltonium is heated with water and calcium carbide.

2 Dt + 5 H2O + CaC2 → 2 DtH5 + CaCO3 + CO2

Another hydride is DtH7, which is also a colorless gas.

Physical properties Edit

Daltonium is a bluish gray metal similar in appearance to lead. The density is 17.8 g/cm3, calculated by dividing its molar mass (334.8 g/mol) by its molar volume (18.8 cm3/mol). Daltonium forms hexagonal crystal structure with the average atomic separation of 3.15 Å and sound travels through it at 611 m/s, 78% faster than sound travelling through air.

It liquifies at 753°C, taking in 13.85 kJ of energy during the process and temperature do not rise while in the process of liquification. After process is completed, it stays liquid until its vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure, called its boiling point. At that point, the liquid converts into gas. If we raise the ambient pressure, its boiling point will go up, and its boiling point will go down with decrease in ambient pressure. If we decrease the ambient pressure down to 30.6 mPa, the boiling point would equal the melting point, called the triple point. If we decrease the pressure even more, then the temperature ceiling for solid daltonium would decrease because just like liquid, solid has vapor pressure and has volatility. In other words, below its triple point, it would convert solid directly into gas (a process called sublimation) at a temperature below its melting point. If we raise the pressure up to 34.7 MPa, darwinium can exist as a supercritical fluid beyond its boiling point, called its critical point. For daltonium, the boiling point at the critical point pressure would be 3889°C.

Occurrence Edit

It is certain that daltonium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe. This element can theoretically be produced naturally in tiny amounts by biggest supernovae or colliding neutron stars due to the requirement of a tremendous amount of energy. Additionally, this element can also be made artificially in much larger quantities by advanced technological civilizations, making artificial daltonium more abundant than natural daltonium in the universe. An estimated abundance of daltonium in the universe by mass is 1.77 × 10−20, which amounts to 5.92 × 1032 kilograms or close to the mass of Hyades star cluster worth of this element.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of daltonium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 332Dt.

Re + 120
Sn + 25 1
n → 332
Np + 74
Ge + 21 1
n → 332
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ck Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Ws Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Oc Lb
10 Io Ly