|Named after||Aleksandr Butlerov|
|Name in Saurian|| Rikcohelaim (Ri)|
|Systematic name|| Unquadbium (Uqb)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Butlerovium||Abeggium|
|Element right of Butlerovium||Dumasium|
|388.2167 u, 644.6490 yg|
|Atomic radius||140 pm, 1.40 Å|
|Covalent radius||163 pm, 1.63 Å|
|van der Waals radius||171 pm, 1.71 Å|
|s||385 (142 p+, 243 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g16 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 48, 20, 10, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6|
(a mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||707.2 kJ/mol, 7.329 eV|
|Electron affinity||52.9 kJ/mol, 0.548 eV|
|Molar mass||388.217 g/mol|
|Molar volume||67.201 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.55 × 1021 g−1|
8.96 × 1021 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||481 pm, 4.81 Å|
|Crystal structure||Face-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 1088.22 K, 1958.79°R|
|Boiling point|| 2244.17 K, 4039.51°R|
|Liquid range||1155.96 , 2080.72|
|Triple point|| 1088.20 K, 1958.76°R|
@ 175.38 mPa, 1.3155 × 10−5 torr
|Critical point|| 4253.62 K, 7656.51°R|
@ 32.1621 MPa, 317.417 atm
|Heat of fusion||10.736 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||220.323 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05656 J/(g• ), 0.10181 J/(g• )|
21.959 J/(mol• ), 39.526 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 4.65 × 10−31|
Absolute: 1.56 × 1022 kg
|By atom||3.15 × 10−32|
Butlerovium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Bu and atomic number 142. Butlerovium was named in honor of Aleksandr Butlerov (1828–1886), who developed the theory of chemical structure. He also incorporated double bonds into structure formulae. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadbium (Uqb) or simply element 142. Butlerovium is the last element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g22.
Atomic properties Edit
Butlerovium has 142 protons, 243 neutrons, and 142 electrons in atoms, with protons and neutrons making up the nucleus at its center while electrons revolve around the nucleus. Butlerovium has two electrons occupying in the f-orbital, consistent with being the second element of the dumaside series in f-block. However, the g-orbital is not yet completed as it needs two more to complete the orbital. Due to spin-orbit coupling due to relativistic effects, there are two electrons in the d-orbital and two in the outermost p-orbital. The electron configuration according to Dirac-Fock calculation is [Og] 5g16 6f2 7d2 8s2 8p2 and the electron notation is 142-8-24.
Like every other element heavier than lead, butlerovium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 385Bu with a half-life of 23.75 seconds. It cluster decays to 337Mw by emitting two oxygen-16 nuclei plus 32 neutrons. Two other isotopes have half-lives of at least a second: 387Bu (4.24 seconds) and 382Bu (2.49 seconds). Like most other elements, butlerovium has metastable isomers, the most stable is 387m1Bu (t½ = 4.57 min).
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
There are oxides of butlerovium: BuO, BuO2 or BuO3, formed when metal exposes to the air rich in oxygen. Butlerovium can react readily with halogens and acids. Examples of halides are BuCl6, BuF4, BuBr, and BuI. Butlerovium can form aqueous solutions such as sulfate (BuSO4) and nitrate (BuNO3). Other compounds include BuS, BuP, and BuN.
Physical properties Edit
Butlerovium is a brownish gray brittle solid metal at room temperature (77°F) that shows brown luster. The molar mass (same as atomic mass in value) is 388.22 g/mol, while its molar volume is 67.20 cm3/mol. Dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 5.7 g/cm3, slightly denser than the densest planet in our solar system –– Earth. The average separation between butlerovium atoms is 481 pm (4.81 Å) and there are nine sextillion atoms in one cubic centimeter of metal.
Its liquid state ranges from 1499°F (1088 K) to 3580°F (2244 K). The amounts of energy absorbed causing phase transitions are related to its phase points. Its heat of fusion is 10.7 kJ/mol while its heat of vaporization is 220.3 kJ/mol, meaning that it requires 22 times more energy for boiling to convert from liquid to gas than converting from solid to liquid. It releases exactly the same amounts of energy upon reversing phase transitions.
It is almost certain that butlerovium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of butlerovium in the universe by mass is 4.65 × 10−31, which amounts to 1.56 × 1022 kilograms or about 5⁄4 Pluto masses worth of butlerovium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of butlerovium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 385Bu.