|Name in Saurian|| Ridjadaim (Rj)|
|Systematic name|| Unseptunium (Usu)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Tennessine (117Ts)|
|Previous element||Helmholtzium (170Hm)|
|Next element||Ramsium (172Rs)|
|Family||Fluorine family (Halogens)|
|502.1715 u, 833.8753 yg|
|Atomic radius||136 pm, 1.36 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||206 pm, 2.06 Å|
|s||498 (171 p+, 327 n0)|
|Electron configuration|| [Gb] 8p3 9s2 9p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 7, 4
|Oxidation states|| −1, +1, +3, +5, +7|
(weakly acidic oxide)
|First ionization energy||987.2 kJ/mol, 10.231 eV|
|Electron affinity||290.0 kJ/mol, 3.006 eV|
|Covalent radius||121 pm, 1.21 Å|
|Molar mass||502.172 g/mol|
|Molar volume||31.331 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.20 × 1021 g−1|
1.92 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||373 pm, 3.73 Å|
|Crystal structure||Base centered orthorhombic|
|Melting point|| 579.36 K, 1042.86°R|
|Boiling point|| 755.86 K, 1360.56°R|
|Liquid range||176.50 , 317.70|
|Triple point|| 579.35 K, 1042.82°R|
@ 6.1244 kPa, 45.937 torr
|Critical point|| 1166.66 K, 2099.99°R|
@ 26.3621 MPa, 260.175 atm
|Heat of fusion||19.037 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||60.528 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.03775 J/(g• ), 0.06795 J/(g• )|
18.957 J/(mol• ), 34.122 J/(mol• )
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 1.42 × 10−50|
Absolute: 476 kg
Bunsenium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Bs and atomic number 171. Bunsenium was named in honor of Robert Bunsen (1811–1899), a pioneer in photochemistry who studied the emission spectra of heated substances. This element is known in the scientific literature as unseptunium (Usu), dvi-astatine, or simply element 171. Bunsenium is the heaviest halogen and is the fifth member of the kirchoffide series, placing this element at 9p5 coordinate on the periodic table.
At ordinary conditions, bunsenium is a dark gray metallic halogen. It is a good conductor of heat but electrical conduction is like a semiconductor. Bunsenium is the densest halogen at 16 g/cm3, twice as dense as iron. The molar volume is 31.3 cm3/mol, similar to astatine, a halogen three rows (two elements) above bunsenium. In ordinary conditions, atoms arrange to form orthorhombic crystals with average atomic separation of 373 pm. It is diamagnetic, meaning it can create its own magnetic field in the presence of externally applied field.
Like other halogens, its liquid range is narrow, between 583°F and 901°F, a bit wider than liquid range of water but with liquid ratio slightly less than water. With increase in temperature, it first becomes a liquid and then a gas. It requires 19 kJ of energy to turn from solid to liquid and requires 60½ kJ of energy to turn from liquid to gas. It takes 68 mJ of energy to heat one gram of bunsenium by 1°F.
Bunsenium's atom is comprised of 669 subatomic particles, including 498 nucleons that make up the nucleus whose ratio is 1.91. This corresponds that there are nearly twice as many neutrons as protons. Heavier elements tend to have more neutrons relative to protons because of the increasing nuclear charge due to positively charged protons.
Surrounding the nucleus, there are 171 electrons in nine shells, but electrons are adding into the eighth shell. One of the orbitals in the eighth shell, 8p, needs one more electron to complete the orbital even though the first electron was added roughly 50 elements ago at lavoisium. However, the 8p orbital was split into 8p1/2 and 8p3/2, the former split orbital was completed 44 elements ago at planckium, while the first electron was added to 8p3/2 just two elements ago at joulium.
Like every other element heavier than lead, bunsenium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 498Bs with an extremely brief half-life (t½) of 1.4 nanoseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the example.
Bunsenium has many meta states that are considerably longer lived than any isotope. One example of 501m1Bs, which is the most stable meta state (t½ = 467 milliseconds). The isomer has a half-life about 3⅓ hundred thousand times longer than the longest ground state isotope, same ratio as the mass of the Sun to the mass of the Earth!
Since bunsenium is a halogen, its chemical properties is assumed to be similar to other members. However, relativistic effects would make bunsenium quite unreactive. Like other halogens, it exhibits odd-number oxidation states, from −1 to +7. +3 (trivalent) is the most common state used in compounds as well as the most common state found in aqueous solutions. Bunsenium has an electronegativity of 2.41, placing it in the middle of the interval between astatine (2.20) and iodine (2.66) in values. The first ionization energy value is also placed in the interval between these two elements, though lot closer to iodine. As a result, bunsenium is more reactive than astatine and tennessine but less reactive than iodine and lighter halogens.
Bs2O3 is a dark reddish brown crystals, while BsN is a pinkish purple powder. Bs2S3 is a light orange crystals, while BsP is a yellow powder. Bunsenium can bond with other halogen to form bunsenium halides, such as BsF3, BsCl3, BsBr3, and BsI3. But when bonded with astatine and jointium, it forms halogen bunsenides: AtBs and JBs, respectively, since bunsenium is more electronegative than astatine and jointium. Bunsenium can also bond to hydrogen to form hydrogen bunsenide (HBs) and forms hydrobunsenic acid when dissolved in water.
Bunsenium can form organic compounds, called organobunsenium compounds, whose properties are similar to organic compounds of lighter halogens. For example, bunsenium can form alcohols like dibutylbunsenium oxide (BuC6H18O), as well as sugars like bunsenium carbohydrates.
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that bunsenium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to exist somewhere in the universe, at least barely. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then bunsenium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. In the universe, only advanced technological civilizations can produce this element, but barely because it requires so much energy to produce this element, thus it is so unstable. On the 172-element periodic table, bunsenium is the rarest element in the universe at an estimated abundance of 1.42 × 10−50 by mass, which amounts to 476 kilograms or only half a ton or about the mass of a dairy cow.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize bunsenium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of bunsenium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires a vast amount of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would immediately decay due to its brief half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope, 498Bs.