Symbol By
Atomic number 128
Pronunciation /'bōi•lē•(y)üm/
Named after Robert Boyle
Name in Saurian Reøcaim (Rø)
Systematic name Unbioctium (Ubo)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Boylium family
Series Lavoiside series
Coordinate 5g8
Element left of Boylium Planckium
Element right of Boylium Berzelium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 471
Atomic mass 345.8646 u, 574.3216 yg
Atomic radius 165 pm, 1.65 Å
Covalent radius 176 pm, 1.76 Å
van der Waals radius 193 pm, 1.93 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 343 (128 p+, 215 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.68
Nuclear radius 8.37 fm
Half-life 5.3681 My
Decay mode Alpha decay
Decay product 339Mw
Electronic properties
Electron notation 128-8-23
Electron configuration [Og] 5g4 6f2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 36, 20, 8, 4
Oxidation states +4, +6, +8, +10
(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.19
First ionization energy 518.0 kJ/mol, 5.369 eV
Electron affinity 23.1 kJ/mol, 0.239 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 345.865 g/mol
Molar volume 35.400 cm3/mol
Density 9.770 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.74 × 1021 g−1
1.70 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 389 pm, 3.89 Å
Speed of sound 1081 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Centered tetragonal
Color Gray
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 387.21 K, 696.99°R
114.06°C, 237.32°F
Boiling point 1322.48 K, 2380.47°R
1049.33°C, 1920.80°F
Liquid range 935.27 K, 1683.48°R
Liquid ratio 3.42
Triple point 387.22 K, 697.00°R
114.07°C, 237.33°F
@ 6.3453 nPa, 4.7594 × 10−11 torr
Critical point 3183.93 K, 5731.08°R
2910.78°C, 5271.41°F
@ 139.5302 MPa, 1377.061 atm
Heat of fusion 5.308 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 130.218 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.07435 J/(g•K), 0.13383 J/(g•°R)
25.714 J/(mol•K), 46.286 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 4.59 × 10−20
Absolute: 1.54 × 1033 kg
By atom 3.49 × 10−21

Boylium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol By and atomic number 128. Boylium was named in honor of Robert Boyle (1627–1691), who developed the concept of chemical elements and studied the physical properties of gases. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbioctium (Ubo) or simply element 128. Boylium is the eighth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g8.

Atomic properties Edit

Boylium atomically contains 343 nucleons (128 protons, 215 neutrons) that make up the nucleus, making up only a tiny portion of the atom. Surrounding the nucleus, there are 23 orbitals in 8 shells where 128 electrons reside, corresponding to its notation of 128-8-23. Due to extreme spin-orbit coupling, the 5g orbital contains four less electrons than what the periodic table expects, because of the smearing effects. Instead there are two electrons in the 6f orbital and two in the 8p orbital.

Isotopes Edit

As for every other element heavier than lead, boylium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 343By with a half-life of 5.37 million years, alpha decaying to 339Mw. The second most stable boylium isotope is 350By, whose half-life is close behind at 3.73 million years, beta decaying to 350Bz. There are numerous metastable isomers, the longest-lived is 348m1By, whose half-life is 20.2 minutes, 345m1By with a half-life of 2.38 minutes, and 346m2By with a half-life of 38 seconds. They all decay to corresponding ground state isotopes through gamma ray emission.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Because of the low binding energies due to added electrons, boylium nurses oxidation states of as high as +10 and is reactive. +8 is not the only common state, as well as less common +6 and +4 states. In the +10 state, boylium is most stable in decafluoride, ByF10.

Boylium is a basic element, meaning it can form a base when metal or its oxide is dissolved in water. The base is used to neutralize acids.

Boylium can examply form hexahalides, octahalides, trichalcides or tetrachalcides. Boylium can form oxides (ByO4 or ByO5) when it burns with a brilliant lime green flame in the air. Boylium sulfate (By(SO4)4 or By(SO4)5) forms when it burns in sulfuric acid. Of all the halogens, fluorine can be bonded to it most easily since fluorine is the most reactive halogen. ByF8 is a clear but smelly liquid with the boiling point of 310 K and freezes at 237 K. ByF10 is a colorless, odorless gas with the condensation point of 221 K. Boylium(VI) boride (ByB2) and boylium(VIII) boride (By3B8) are both semiconductors. ByB2 has a melting point of 755 K while By3B8 has a much higher melting point of 2387 K.

Physical properties Edit

Boylium is a soft, gray, brittle metal. Boylium is a solid at room temperature (298 K) with tetragonal crystals; its liquid state ranges from 387 K to 1322 K. Boylium's density is 9.77 g/cm3 and its molar volume is 35.4 cm3/mol, multiplying density by its molar volume yields a molar mass of 346 g/mol. In one cubic centimeter of cube, there are 17 sextillion boylium atoms.

Occurrence Edit

It is certain that boylium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only practically be made by advanced technological civilizations, however boylium can barely exist naturally as the double beta decay product of maxwellium. Boylium is theoretically the heaviest possible naturally occurring element. An estimated abundance of boylium in the universe by mass is 4.59 × 10−20, which amounts to 1.54  × 1033 kg.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of boylium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 363By.

Hf + 137
Ba + 28 1
n → 343
Th + 88
Sr + 23 1
n → 343
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ck Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Ws Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Oc Lb
10 Io Ly