|Named after||Robert Boyle|
|Name in Saurian|| Reøcaim (Rø)|
|Systematic name|| Unbioctium (Ubo)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Boylium||Planckium|
|Element right of Boylium||Berzelium|
|345.8646 u, 574.3216 yg|
|Atomic radius||165 pm, 1.65 Å|
|Covalent radius||176 pm, 1.76 Å|
|van der Waals radius||193 pm, 1.93 Å|
|s||343 (128 p+, 215 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g4 6f2 8s2 8p2|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 36, 20, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states|| +4, +6, +8, +10|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||518.0 kJ/mol, 5.369 eV|
|Electron affinity||23.1 kJ/mol, 0.239 eV|
|Molar mass||345.865 g/mol|
|Molar volume||35.400 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.74 × 1021 g−1|
1.70 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||389 pm, 3.89 Å|
|Crystal structure||Centered tetragonal|
|Melting point|| 387.21 K, 696.99°R|
|Boiling point|| 1322.48 K, 2380.47°R|
|Liquid range||935.27 , 1683.48|
|Triple point|| 387.22 K, 697.00°R|
@ 6.3453 nPa, 4.7594 × 10−11 torr
|Critical point|| 3183.93 K, 5731.08°R|
@ 139.5302 MPa, 1377.061 atm
|Heat of fusion||5.308 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||130.218 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.07435 J/(g• ), 0.13383 J/(g• )|
25.714 J/(mol• ), 46.286 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 4.59 × 10−20|
Absolute: 1.54 × 1033 kg
|By atom||3.49 × 10−21|
Boylium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol By and atomic number 128. Boylium was named in honor of Robert Boyle (1627–1691), who developed the concept of chemical elements and studied the physical properties of gases. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbioctium (Ubo) or simply element 128. Boylium is the eighth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g8.
Atomic properties Edit
Boylium atomically contains 343 nucleons (128 protons, 215 neutrons) that make up the nucleus, making up only a tiny portion of the atom. Surrounding the nucleus, there are 23 orbitals in 8 shells where 128 electrons reside, corresponding to its notation of 128-8-23. Due to extreme spin-orbit coupling, the 5g orbital contains four less electrons than what the periodic table expects, because of the smearing effects. Instead there are two electrons in the 6f orbital and two in the 8p orbital.
As for every other element heavier than lead, boylium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 343By with a half-life of 5.37 million years, alpha decaying to 339Mw. The second most stable boylium isotope is 350By, whose half-life is close behind at 3.73 million years, beta decaying to 350Bz. There are numerous metastable isomers, the longest-lived is 348m1By, whose half-life is 20.2 minutes, 345m1By with a half-life of 2.38 minutes, and 346m2By with a half-life of 38 seconds. They all decay to corresponding ground state isotopes through gamma ray emission.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Because of the low binding energies due to added electrons, boylium nurses oxidation states of as high as +10 and is reactive. +8 is not the only common state, as well as less common +6 and +4 states. In the +10 state, boylium is most stable in decafluoride, ByF10.
Boylium is a basic element, meaning it can form a base when metal or its oxide is dissolved in water. The base is used to neutralize acids.
Boylium can examply form hexahalides, octahalides, trichalcides or tetrachalcides. Boylium can form oxides (ByO4 or ByO5) when it burns with a brilliant lime green flame in the air. Boylium sulfate (By(SO4)4 or By(SO4)5) forms when it burns in sulfuric acid. Of all the halogens, fluorine can be bonded to it most easily since fluorine is the most reactive halogen. ByF8 is a clear but smelly liquid with the boiling point of 310 K and freezes at 237 K. ByF10 is a colorless, odorless gas with the condensation point of 221 K. Boylium(VI) boride (ByB2) and boylium(VIII) boride (By3B8) are both semiconductors. ByB2 has a melting point of 755 K while By3B8 has a much higher melting point of 2387 K.
Physical properties Edit
Boylium is a soft, gray, brittle metal. Boylium is a solid at room temperature (298 K) with tetragonal crystals; its liquid state ranges from 387 K to 1322 K. Boylium's density is 9.77 g/cm3 and its molar volume is 35.4 cm3/mol, multiplying density by its molar volume yields a molar mass of 346 g/mol. In one cubic centimeter of cube, there are 17 sextillion boylium atoms.
It is certain that boylium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only practically be made by advanced technological civilizations, however boylium can barely exist naturally as the double beta decay product of maxwellium. Boylium is theoretically the heaviest possible naturally occurring element. An estimated abundance of boylium in the universe by mass is 4.59 × 10−20, which amounts to 1.54 × 1033 kg.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of boylium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be very difficult since it requires a great deal of energy, thus its cross section would be so limited. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 363By.