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Boltzmannium

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Boltzmannium (147Bo)
Nomenclature
Pronunciation /'bōlts•mān•ē•(y)üm/
Name in Saurian Reckjmuddaim (Re)
/'rek•mu•dām/
Systematic name Unquadseptium (Uqs)
/'ün•kwod•sep•tē•(y)üm/
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Coordinate 6f7
Above element Americium (95Am)
Below element ––
Previous element Davyum (146Da)
Next element Faradium (148Fa)
Family Europium family
Series Dumaside series
Atomic properties
Atomic mass 406.3685 u, 674.7907 yg
Atomic radius 133 pm, 1.33 Å
Van der Waals radius 181 pm, 1.81 Å
Subatomic particles 550
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 403 (147 p+, 256 n0)
Nuclear ratio 1.74
Nuclear radius 8.83 fm
Half-life 2.0635 s
Electronic properties
Electron notation 147-8-24
Electron configuration [Mc] 5g18 6f5 7d2 8s2 8p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 23, 10, 4
Oxidation states 0, +1, +2, +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.88
First ionization energy 803.3 kJ/mol, 8.326 eV
Electron affinity 16.9 kJ/mol, 0.176 eV
Covalent radius 144 pm, 1.44 Å
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 406.369 g/mol
Molar volume 25.799 cm3/mol
Density 15.751 g/cm3
Atomic number density 2.33 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 350 pm, 3.50 Å
Speed of sound 4252 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Base centered orthorhombic
Color Grayish white
Phase Solid
Thermodynamics
Melting point 789.32 K, 516.17°C
961.10°F, 1420.77°R
Boiling point 5137.88 K, 4864.73°C
8788.51°F, 9248.18°R
Liquid range 4348.56 K/°C, 7827.41°F/°R
Liquid ratio 6.51
Triple point 789.32 K, 516.17°C
961.10°F, 1420.77°R
@ 0.24715 aPa, 1.8538 × 10−21 torr
Critical point 11920.37 K, 11647.22°C
20997.00°F, 21456.67°R
@ 29.1538 MPa, 287.726 atm
Heat of fusion 8.209 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 413.235 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05147 J/g/K, 0.09265 J/g/°R
20.916 J/mol/K, 37.649 J/mol/°R
Abundance
Universe (by mass) Relative: 1.85 × 10−35
Absolute: 6.19 × 1017 kg

Boltzmannium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Bo and atomic number 147. Boltzmannium was named in honor of Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906), who advocated atomic theory and helped Jožef Stefan to develop Stefan–Boltzmann law. This element is known in scientific literature as unquadseptium (Uqs), eka-americium, or simply element 147. Boltzmannium is the seventh member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below europium and americium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 6f7.

Properties Edit

Physical Edit

Boltzmannium is a silver metal like most metals that ductile, brittle, and shiny. Its molar mass is 40638 g/mol while its molar volume is 2545 cm3/mol; dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 1534 g/cm3. Boltzmannium atoms arrange to form base centered orthorhombic crystals and the average distance between atoms is 3½ Å.

This element has an extremely wide liquid range, from 789 K (melting point) to 4138 K (boiling point), corresponding to a very high liquid ratio of 5.24. It ranks third in liquid range and sixth in liquid ratio of any element. Because of the very wide liquid range and very high liquid ratio, the pressure where all three phases of matter are equally stable in equilibrium is very low, at one quarter of an attopascal, which is essentially the pressure of the vacuum.

Atomic Edit

Boltzmannium has 550 subatomic particles, 73% of these make up the nucleus whose proton:neutron ratio is 1.74. Due to relativistic effects, there are two electrons each in the d-orbital and p-orbital, leaving the f-orbital with just five electrons instead of nine. Atom itself is 15000 times the radii of its nucleus, 133 pm vs. 8.83 fm (1 pm = 1000 fm).

Isotopes Edit

Like every other elements heavier than lead, boltzmannium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 403Bo with a half-life of two seconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following examples.

403
147
Bo → 222
86
Rn + 145
61
Pm + 36 1
0
n
403
147
Bo → 181
73
Ta + 103
45
Ru + 63
29
Cu + 56 1
0
n

410Bo is the second most stable isotope with a half-life of 305 milliseconds while 393Bo has a half-life of 281 milliseconds. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 100 milliseconds, all undergoing fission.

Chemical Edit

Despite it is below americium, boltzmannium does not display eka-americium. It exhibits common oxidation states of +1 (monovalent) and +3 (trivalent) with +2 (divalent) being prominent in organoboltzmannium compounds, ligands, and radicals. In ordinary conditions due to its inactivity, boltzmannium does not corrode in air, water, or moisture, but it gradually corrode in strong mineral acids.

Compounds Edit

Bo2O and Bo2O3, brown and gray powder respectively, can be obtained by combining with oxygen or reducing oxides at high temperatures. It gradually reacts with hydrochloric acid in ordinary conditions to form BoCl or BoCl3 as precipitates, both white ionic solids. Boltzmannium reacts most rapidly with fluorine to form BoF or BoF3, both white ionic solids. Other boltzmannium compounds include Bo2S3 (orange powder) and BoBr (white crystalline salt).

Occurrence and synthesis Edit

It is almost certain that boltzmannium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then boltzmannium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of boltzmannium in the universe by mass is 1.85 × 10−35, which amounts to 6.19 × 1017 kilograms.

To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize boltzmannium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of boltzmannium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would quickly decay due to its short half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 403Bo.

227
89
Ac + 140
58
Ce + 36 1
0
n → 403
147
Bo
282
108
Hs + 89
39
Y + 32 1
0
n → 403
147
Bo
Periodic table
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Bc Fl Lz Lv J Mc
8 Nw Gl * Du Bu Ab Sh Hi Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb
9 Ps Hb Kf Bn Ju Hm Bs Rs
* Ls Dm Ms Ts Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fk Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Ch An Ed

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