|Name in Saurian|| Reckjmuddaim (Re)|
|Systematic name|| Unquadseptium (Uqs)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Above element||Americium (95Am)|
|Previous element||Davyum (146Da)|
|Next element||Faradium (148Fa)|
|Atomic mass||406.3685 u, 674.7907 yg|
|Atomic radius||133 pm, 1.33 Å|
|Van der Waals radius||181 pm, 1.81 Å|
|Nucleons||403 (147 p+, 256 n0)|
|Nuclear radius||8.83 fm|
|Electron configuration|| [Mc] 5g18 6f5 7d2 8s2 8p2|
2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 23, 10, 4
|Oxidation states|| 0, +1, +2, +3|
(mildly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||803.3 kJ/mol, 8.326 eV|
|Electron affinity||16.9 kJ/mol, 0.176 eV|
|Covalent radius||144 pm, 1.44 Å|
|Molar mass||406.369 g/mol|
|Molar volume||25.799 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density||2.33 × 1022 cm−3|
|Average atomic separation||350 pm, 3.50 Å|
|Speed of sound||4252 m/s|
|Crystal structure||Base centered orthorhombic|
|Melting point|| 789.32 K, 516.17°C|
|Boiling point|| 5137.88 K, 4864.73°C|
|Liquid range||4348.56 K/°C, 7827.41°F/°R|
|Triple point|| 789.32 K, 516.17°C|
@ 0.24715 aPa, 1.8538 × 10−21 torr
|Critical point|| 11920.37 K, 11647.22°C|
@ 29.1538 MPa, 287.726 atm
|Heat of fusion||8.209 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||413.235 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.05147 J/g/K, 0.09265 J/g/°R|
20.916 J/mol/K, 37.649 J/mol/°R
|Universe (by mass)|| Relative: 1.85 × 10−35|
Absolute: 6.19 × 1017 kg
Boltzmannium is the fabricated name of a hypothetical element with the symbol Bo and atomic number 147. Boltzmannium was named in honor of Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906), who advocated atomic theory and helped Jožef Stefan to develop Stefan–Boltzmann law. This element is known in scientific literature as unquadseptium (Uqs), eka-americium, or simply element 147. Boltzmannium is the seventh member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below europium and americium); this element is located in periodic table coordinate 6f7.
Boltzmannium is a silver metal like most metals that ductile, brittle, and shiny. Its molar mass is 4063⁄8 g/mol while its molar volume is 254⁄5 cm3/mol; dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 153⁄4 g/cm3. Boltzmannium atoms arrange to form base centered orthorhombic crystals and the average distance between atoms is 3½ Å.
This element has an extremely wide liquid range, from 789 K (melting point) to 4138 K (boiling point), corresponding to a very high liquid ratio of 5.24. It ranks third in liquid range and sixth in liquid ratio of any element. Because of the very wide liquid range and very high liquid ratio, the pressure where all three phases of matter are equally stable in equilibrium is very low, at one quarter of an attopascal, which is essentially the pressure of the vacuum.
Boltzmannium has 550 subatomic particles, 73% of these make up the nucleus whose proton:neutron ratio is 1.74. Due to relativistic effects, there are two electrons each in the d-orbital and p-orbital, leaving the f-orbital with just five electrons instead of nine. Atom itself is 15000 times the radii of its nucleus, 133 pm vs. 8.83 fm (1 pm = 1000 fm).
Like every other elements heavier than lead, boltzmannium has no stable isotopes. The most stable isotope is 403Bo with a half-life of two seconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei as well as neutrons like the following examples.
410Bo is the second most stable isotope with a half-life of 305 milliseconds while 393Bo has a half-life of 281 milliseconds. All of the remaining isotopes have half-lives less than 100 milliseconds, all undergoing fission.
Despite it is below americium, boltzmannium does not display eka-americium. It exhibits common oxidation states of +1 (monovalent) and +3 (trivalent) with +2 (divalent) being prominent in organoboltzmannium compounds, ligands, and radicals. In ordinary conditions due to its inactivity, boltzmannium does not corrode in air, water, or moisture, but it gradually corrode in strong mineral acids.
Bo2O and Bo2O3, brown and gray powder respectively, can be obtained by combining with oxygen or reducing oxides at high temperatures. It gradually reacts with hydrochloric acid in ordinary conditions to form BoCl or BoCl3 as precipitates, both white ionic solids. Boltzmannium reacts most rapidly with fluorine to form BoF or BoF3, both white ionic solids. Other boltzmannium compounds include Bo2S3 (orange powder) and BoBr (white crystalline salt).
Occurrence and synthesis Edit
It is almost certain that boltzmannium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believed to exist somewhere in the universe, at least in very tiny amounts. Since every element heavier than lithium were produced by stars, then boltzmannium must be produced in stars, and then thrown out into space by exploding stars. But it is theoretically impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this heavy element. Instead, this element virtually can only be made by advanced technological civilizations. An estimated abundance of boltzmannium in the universe by mass is 1.85 × 10−35, which amounts to 6.19 × 1017 kilograms.
To go along with other such civilizations, humans on Earth may eventually have the capability to synthesize boltzmannium. To synthesize most stable isotopes of boltzmannium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be extremely difficult since it requires vast amounts of energy and even if nuclei of this element were produced would quickly decay due to its short half-life. Here's couple of example equations in the production of the most stable isotope 403Bo.