Symbol Bo
Atomic number 147
Pronunciation /'bōlts•mān•ē•(y)üm/
Named after Ludwig Boltzmann
Name in Saurian Reckjmuddaim (Re)
Systematic name Unquadseptium (Uqs)
Location on the periodic table
Period 8
Family Promethium family
Series Dumaside series
Coordinate 6f5
Element above Boltzmannium Neptunium
Element left of Boltzmannium Davyum
Element right of Boltzmannium Faradium
Atomic properties
Subatomic particles 550
Atomic mass 406.3685 u, 674.7907 yg
Atomic radius 133 pm, 1.33 Å
Covalent radius 144 pm, 1.44 Å
van der Waals radius 181 pm, 1.81 Å
Nuclear properties
Nucleons 403 (147 p+, 256 no)
Nuclear ratio 1.74
Nuclear radius 8.83 fm
Half-life 206.35 ns
Decay mode Spontaneous fission
Decay product Various
Electronic properties
Electron notation 147-8-24
Electron configuration [Og] 5g18 6f5 7d2 8s2 8p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 23, 10, 4
Oxidation states +4, +6, +8, +10, +12
(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.88
First ionization energy 803.3 kJ/mol, 8.326 eV
Electron affinity 16.9 kJ/mol, 0.176 eV
Physical properties
Bulk properties
Molar mass 406.369 g/mol
Molar volume 25.799 cm3/mol
Density 15.751 g/cm3
Atomic number density 1.48 × 1021 g−1
2.33 × 1022 cm−3
Average atomic separation 350 pm, 3.50 Å
Speed of sound 4252 m/s
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Crystal structure Base-centered orthorhombic
Color Grayish white
Phase Solid
Thermal properties
Melting point 789.32 K, 1420.77°R
516.17°C, 961.10°F
Boiling point 5137.88 K, 9248.18°R
4864.73°C, 8788.51°F
Liquid range 4348.56 K, 7827.41°R
Liquid ratio 6.51
Triple point 789.32 K, 1420.77°R
516.17°C, 961.10°F
@ 0.24715 aPa, 1.8538 × 10−21 torr
Critical point 11920.37 K, 21456.67°R
11647.22°C, 20997.00°F
@ 29.1538 MPa, 287.726 atm
Heat of fusion 8.209 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 413.235 kJ/mol
Heat capacity 0.05147 J/(g•K), 0.09265 J/(g•°R)
20.916 J/(mol•K), 37.649 J/(mol•°R)
Abundance in the universe
By mass Relative: 1.85 × 10−34
Absolute: 6.19 × 1018 kg
By atom 1.19 × 10−35

Boltzmannium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Bo and atomic number 147. Boltzmannium was named in honor of Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906), who advocated atomic theory and helped Jožef Stefan to develop Stefan–Boltzmann law. This element is known in the scientific literature as unquadseptium (Uqs), eka-neptunium, or simply element 147. Boltzmannium is the fifth member of the dumaside series, found in the third row of f-block (below promethium and neptunium); this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 6f5.

Atomic properties Edit

Boltzmannium has 550 subatomic particles, 73% of these make up the nucleus whose proton:neutron ratio is 1.74. Due to relativistic effects, there are two electrons each in the d-orbital and p-orbital, leaving the f-orbital with just five electrons instead of nine. Atom itself is 15000 times the radii of its nucleus, 133 pm vs. 8.83 fm (1 pm = 1000 fm).

Isotopes Edit

Like every other element heavier than lead, boltzmannium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 403Bo with a half-life of 206 nanoseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into two or three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like the examples.

Bo → 222
Rn + 145
Pm + 36 1
Bo → 181
Ta + 103
Ru + 63
Cu + 56 1

410Bo is the second longest-lived isotope with a half-life of 30.5 nanoseconds while 393Bo has a half-life of 28.1 nanoseconds.

Chemical properties and compounds Edit

Despite it is below neptunium, boltzmannium doesn't exactly display the properties of that above element. It exhibits oxidation states from +1 all the way up to +12 with +2 (divalent) being prominent in organoboltzmannium compounds, ligands, and radicals. In ordinary conditions due to its inactivity, boltzmannium does not corrode in air, water, or moisture, but it gradually corrode in strong mineral acids.

BoO4 and BoO5, brown and gray powder respectively, can be obtained by combining with oxygen or reducing oxides at high temperatures. It gradually reacts with hydrochloric acid in ordinary conditions to form BoCl5 or BoCl4 as precipitates, both white ionic solids. Boltzmannium reacts most rapidly with fluorine to form BoF5 or BoF4, both white ionic solids. Other boltzmannium compounds include BoS5 (orange powder) and BoBr6 (white crystalline salt).

Physical properties Edit

Boltzmannium is a silver metal like most metals that is ductile, brittle, and shiny. Its molar mass is 40638 g/mol while its molar volume is 2545 cm3/mol; dividing molar mass by molar volume yields a density of 1534 g/cm3. Boltzmannium atoms arrange to form base-centered orthorhombic crystals and the average distance between atoms is 3½ Å.

This element has an extremely wide liquid range, from 789 K (melting point) to 5138 K (boiling point), corresponding to a very high liquid ratio of 6.51. Of all 172 elements, boltzmannium ranks third in liquid range and fourth in liquid ratio. Because of the very wide liquid range and very high liquid ratio, the pressure where all three phases of matter are equally stable in equilibrium is very low, at one quarter of an attopascal, which is essentially the pressure of the vacuum.

Occurrence Edit

It is almost certain that boltzmannium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of boltzmannium in the universe by mass is 1.85 × 10−34, which amounts to 6.19 × 1018 kilograms.

Synthesis Edit

To synthesize most stable isotopes of boltzmannium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would quickly undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 403Bo.

Ac + 140
Ce + 36 1
n → 403
Hs + 89
Y + 32 1
n → 403
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
8 Nw G Ls Dm Ms T Dt Mw Pk By Bz Fn Dw To Pl Ah My Cv Fy Chd A Ed Ab Bu Du Sh Hb Da Bo Fa Av So Hr Wt Dr Le Vh Hk Ke Ap Vw Hu Fh Ma Kp Gb Bc Hi Kf Bn J Hm Bs Rs
9 Me Jf Ul Gr Mr Arm Hy Ck Do Ib Eg Af Bhz Me Zm Qtr Bhr Cy Gt Lp Pi Ix El Sv Sk Abr Ea Sp Ws Sl Jo Bl Et Ci Ht Bp Ud It Yh Jp Ha Vi Gk L Ko Ja Ph Gv Dc Bm Jf Km Oc Lb 10 Io Ly