|Named after||Jöns Jacob Berzelius|
|Name in Saurian|| Rohqocaim (Rq)|
|Systematic name|| Unbiennium (Ube)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element left of Berzelium||Boylium|
|Element right of Berzelium||Franklinium|
|350.9070 u, 582.6948 yg|
|Atomic radius||166 pm, 1.66 Å|
|Covalent radius||178 pm, 1.78 Å|
|van der Waals radius||194 pm, 1.94 Å|
|s||348 (129 p+, 219 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g4 6f3 7d1 8s2 8p1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 36, 21, 9, 3|
|Oxidation states|| +3, +5, +6, +7, +8, +9|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||546.9 kJ/mol, 5.668 eV|
|Electron affinity||41.6 kJ/mol, 0.431 eV|
|Molar mass||350.907 g/mol|
|Molar volume||48.232 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.72 × 1021 g−1|
1.25 × 1022 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||431 pm, 4.31 Å|
|Crystal structure||Base-centered orthorhombic|
|Melting point|| 281.16 K, 506.09°R|
|Boiling point|| 1134.88 K, 2042.78°R|
|Liquid range||853.72 , 1536.70|
|Triple point|| 281.16 K, 506.09°R|
@ 677.59 fPa, 5.0824 × 10−15 torr
|Critical point|| 1919.28 K, 3454.71°R|
@ 16.1041 MPa, 158.935 atm
|Heat of fusion||4.535 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||116.868 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.07107 J/(g• ), 0.12793 J/(g• )|
24.939 J/(mol• ), 44.890 J/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 2.57 × 10−25|
Absolute: 8.61 × 1027 kg
|By atom||1.92 × 10−26|
Berzelium is the provisional non-systematic name of an undiscovered element with the symbol Bz and atomic number 129. Berzelium was named in honor of Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779–1848), who worked out the modern technique of chemical notation, such as H2O, and discovered several elements, including silicon and thorium. This element is known in the scientific literature as unbiennium (Ube) or simply element 129. Berzelium is the ninth element of the lavoiside series and located in the periodic table coordinate 5g9.
Atomic properties Edit
Berzelium contains 129 protons, hence its atomic number, and 219 neutrons that make up the nucleus, corresponding to its nuclear ratio of 1.70. In total, there are 348 nucleons, corresponding to its mass number. There are four electrons filling in the 5g orbital as this is a g-block element, but the number is way short of what the periodic table expects because of the spin-orbit coupling due to relativistic effects. According to the Madelung rule, there should be nine electrons in the g-orbital. The five missing electrons are found in the shells beyond the g-orbital, three in the 6f orbital, one in the 7d orbital, and one in the 8p orbital.
Like every other element heavier than lead, berzelium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 348Bz with a half-life of 150 years, alpha decaying to 344Pk. Another isotope, 351Bz, has a half-life of 108 years and undergoing cluster decay, emitting 12C nuclei, 8Be nuclei, and 30 neutrons to produce 311Nw as the shedded remain of 351Bz.
Berzelium has a number of metastable isomers. The longest-lived metastate is 349m1Bz with a half-life of 47 minutes.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Berzelium commonly forms Bz7+ and Bz9+ by donating seven or nine electrons due to low binding energies of electrons. Also due to its relatively low ionization energy and electronegativity, it is reactive. Berzelium loses purplish hue when it is exposed to air as oxide coating forms. Berzelium powder dissolves in water and acids to form a base and neutral salt respectively.
There are several compounds of berzelium. Berzelium(IX) sulfide (Bz2S9) is a yellow crystalline solid. Berzelium(IX) fluoride (BzF9) is a colorless gas that condenses at 443°R (−17°F) to a pale blue liquid. Berzelium(VII) carbonate (Bz2(CO3)7) is a yellow liquid with the boiling point of 545°R (85°F) and freezes at 379°R (−80°F). Berzelium(IX) nitride (BzN3 or Bz2N6) is a black powdery solid. Other compounds include BzCl7, Bz2O9, BzO3, BzN3, and BzI5.
Physical properties Edit
Berzelium is a purplish gray metal with the melting point low enough to be a liquid at room temperature (537°R, 77°F). It freezes to a purplish gray amorphous solid at 506°R (46°F) and it boils at 2043°R (1583°F). This liquid would be lot less volatile than mercury due to its lower vapor pressure. Berzelium has the highest liquid ratio (4.04) of any g-block element.
Its density is 7.3 g/cm3, almost identical to the density of tin, and its molar volume 48.2 cm3/mol. Multiplying density by its molar volume yields the molar mass 350.9 g/mol. The sound travel through berzelium at 1414 m/s.
It is certain that berzelium is virtually nonexistent on Earth, and is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is virtually impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. . Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of berzelium in the universe by mass is 2.57 × 10−25, which amounts to 8.62 × 1027 kilograms or about the mass of Lerna (2M1207b) worth of berzelium.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of berzelium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 348Bz.
Imaginative applications Edit
Because metal is liquid at ordinary conditions, berzelium amalgams can be created when we dissolve solid metals in it, just like mercury. One interesting example is mercury-berzelium amalgam, which can be used to make thermometers. Due to its radioactivity with a 150-year half-life, liquid berzelium can be useful in glow sticks that last few hundred years. For comparison, conventional glow sticks only last few days. If enough berzelium is synthesized, it may well replace chemical solution glow sticks with radioactive liquid glow sticks.