|Named after||Henri Becquerel|
|Name in Saurian|| Rosgiohocaim (Rs)|
|Systematic name|| Unhexpentium (Uhp)|
|Location on the periodic table|
|Element above Becquerelium||Roentgenium|
|Element left of Becquerelium||Gibbsium|
|Element right of Becquerelium||Higgsium|
|485.0292 u, 805.4099 yg|
|Atomic radius||196 pm, 1.96 Å|
|Covalent radius||196 pm, 1.96 Å|
|van der Waals radius||271 pm, 2.71 Å|
|s||481 (165 p+, 316 no)|
|Electron configuration||[Og] 5g18 6f14 7d10 8s2 8p2 9s1|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 32, 18, 4, 1|
|Oxidation states|| +1, +3|
(a strongly basic oxide)
|First ionization energy||518.4 kJ/mol, 5.373 eV|
|Electron affinity||73.2 kJ/mol, 0.759 eV|
|Molar mass||485.029 g/mol|
|Molar volume||65.712 cm3/mol|
|Atomic number density|| 1.24 × 1021 g−1|
9.16 × 1021 cm−3
|Average atomic separation||478 pm, 4.78 Å|
|Crystal structure||Body-centered cubic|
|Melting point|| 366.16 K, 659.10°R|
|Boiling point||1032.58 K, 1858.65°R, 759.43°C, 1398.98°F|
|Liquid range||626.42 , 1127.55|
|Triple point|| 366.16 K, 659.09°R|
@ 7.6853 mPa, 5.7645 × 10−5 torr
|Critical point|| 3248.42 K, 5847.15°R|
@ 69.2452 MPa, 683.399 atm
|Heat of fusion||5.393 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||83.929 kJ/mol|
|Heat capacity|| 0.06156 J/(g• ), 0.11080 J/(g• )|
29.856 J/(mol• ), 53.742 k/(mol• )
|Abundance in the universe|
|By mass|| Relative: 6.37 × 10−34|
Absolute: 2.13 × 1019 kg
|By atom||3.45 × 10−35|
Becquerelium is the provisional non-systematic name of a theoretical element with the symbol Bc and atomic number 165. Becquerelium was named in honor of Henri Becquerel (1852–1908), who discovered radioactivity. This element is known in the scientific literature as unhexpentium (Uhp), dvi-gold, or simply element 165. Becquerelium is the heaviest member of the copper family (below copper, silver, gold, and roentgenium) and is the ninth member of the kelvinide series; this element is located in the periodic table coordinate 7d9.
Atomic properties Edit
Becquerelium's nucleus is comprised of 165 protons and 316 neutrons, which corresponds that its nuclear ratio is 1.92. It also has 165 electrons in 9 energy levels and 25 orbitals. Due to extreme relativistic effects causing smearing of the orbitals, after just completed the d-orbital, the electron is filling in the s-orbital in the ninth and outermost shell as if skipping the p-orbital entirely. However, there are two electrons in the p-orbital that was last added 38 elements ago. The electrons are full in the p1/2 split orbital and none in the p3/2 split orbital.
Like every other element heavier than lead, becquerelium has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived isotope is 481Bc with a brief half-life of 34.67 milliseconds. It undergoes spontaneous fission, splitting into three lighter nuclei plus neutrons like in the example.
Becquerelium has several meta states, such as 480m1Bc, which is the longest-lived excited state at 98 milliseconds, thrice as long as the aforementioned most stable isotope.
Chemical properties and compounds Edit
Becquerelium is a reactive metal, like all of the alkali metals, because it needs to lose the only electron in its outermost orbital. In response, its oxidation state is +1 (monovalent), but due to electrons in the 8p1/2 orbital participate in bonding due to small spacing between the 8p1/2 and 9s orbitals, +3 state (trivalent) is also common. Becquerelium(I) would behave like potassium or silver; becquerelium(III) would behave like thallium. Its electronegativity is 0.97 and the first ionization energy is 5.37 eV, similar in values to sodium, meaning becquerelium is just as chemically active as sodium. Becquerelium(I) forms solution more easily than becquerelium(III). Becquerelium hydroxide (BcOH) forms when the metal reacts with water, and neutral salts of becquerelium would form when the metal reacts with acids, like becquerelium nitrate (BcNO3) obtained when becquerelium reacts with nitric acid.
Becquerelium can form numerous compounds. Becquerelium(I) hydroxide (BcOH) is a highly basic substance formed when becquerelium reacts vigorously with water. Becquerelium(I) nitrate (BcNO3) is an example of a salt when becquerelium neutralizes nitric acid. Becquerelium(I) oxide (Bc2O) is a red powder, formed when the metal exposes to the air for even a short time. Another oxide is becquerelium(III) oxide (Bc2O3), which is a white powder. Becquerelium(I) chloride (BcCl) is a pale orange ionic salt formed when metal is heated and electrified with table salt (sodium chloride). BcCl can be reacted with chlorine gas to give BcCl3, also a pale orange ionic salt like the former. Becquerelium(I) iodide (BcI) is a pale pink rhombohedric crystals. This metal can slowly react with pure nitrogen to form becquerelium(I) nitride (Bc3N), a green powder, or becquerelium(III) nitride (BcN), a greenish white powder. It also reacts vigorously with phosphorus to form becquerelium(III) phosphide, which is a lime green powder.
Physical properties Edit
Due to its electron configuration with one electron occupying the outermost shell after the completed d-orbital, becquerelium is lot more like an alkali metal than a member of the copper family. It is denser than any alkali metal but less denser than any other copper family element. The element's density is 7.4 g/cm3, while copper (the diffusest member of the copper group before this element) is 8.9 g/cm3, while the above element roentgenium has a density of 28.5 g/cm3. Like silver and roentgenium, becquerelium is silvery, but for this region of the periodic table in terms of atomic numbers, it is unusual as metals surrounding this element are colored due to extreme quantum effects. Also like alkali metals, becquerelium is soft enough to be cut with a knife.
Becquerelium's melting point is expected to be just low enough to be a liquid at room temperature. With the absence of completed 8p orbital due to relativistic effects, the attractive forces between atoms would be stronger and would thus have higher melting point. Its melting point of 93°C (199°F) is similar to the melting point of sodium (98°C, 208°F). Its boiling point is 759°C (1399°F), about the same as potassium (758°C, 1397°F).
It is almost certain that becquerelium doesn't exist on Earth at all, but it is believe to barely exist somewhere in the universe due to its brief lifetime. Every element heavier than iron can only naturally be produced by exploding stars. But it is likely impossible for even the most powerful supernovae or most violent neutron star collisions to produce this element through r-process because there's not enough energy available or not enough neutrons, respectively, to produce this hyperheavy element. Instead, this element can only be produced by advanced technological civilizations, virtually accounting for all of its abundance in the universe. An estimated abundance of becquerelium in the universe by mass is 6.37 × 10−29, which amounts to 2.13 × 1019 kilograms.
To synthesize most stable isotopes of becquerelium, nuclei of a couple lighter elements must be fused together, and right amount of neutrons must be seeded. This operation would be impossible using current technology since it requires a tremendous amount of energy, thus its cross section would be so low that it is beyond the technological limit. Even if synthesis succeeds, this resulting element would immediately undergo fission. Here's couple of example equations in the synthesis of the most stable isotope, 481Bc.
Imaginative applications Edit
Due to similarity to sodium in properties, becquerelium uses would be similar to sodium, like in vapor lamps which give off bluish white light, in contrast to yellow light for sodium, laser guides in telescopes, and alloys. However, becquerelium's useful applications would be impossible due to its extreme instability.